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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population

From: Nutritional risk screening score as an independent predictor of nonventilator hospital-acquired pneumonia: a cohort study of 67,280 patients

Demographics Total (n = 67,280) NRS score < 3 (n = 62,702) NRS score ≥ 3 (n = 4578) P value
Age (years), median (Q1-Q3) 51 (37–65) 50 (37–64) 68 (43–78) < 0.001
Male, n (%) 28,684 (42.6) 26,499 (42.3) 2185 (47.7) < 0.001
Drinking status, n (%)     < 0.001
 Never drinker 57,117 (84.9) 53,246 (84.9) 3871 (84.5)  
 Current drinker 7802 (11.6) 7346 (11.7) 456 (10.0)  
 Former drinker 2119 (3.1) 1890 (3.0) 229 (5.0)  
 Missing 242(0.4) 220 (0.4) 22 (0.5)  
Smoking status, n (%)     < 0.001
 never smoker 55,266 (82.1) 51,584 (82.3) 3682 (80.4)  
 Current smoker 8634 (12.9) 8092 (12.9) 542 (11.8)  
 Former smoker 3230 (4.8) 2886 (4.6) 344 (7.6)  
 Missing 150(0.2) 140 (0.2) 10 (0.2)  
Comorbidities, n (%)
 COPD 803 (1.2) 651 (1.0) 152 (3.3) < 0.001
 Swallow disability 126 (0.2) 63 (0.1) 63 (1.4) < 0.001
 Stroke 7237 (10.8) 6072 (9.7) 1165 (25.4) < 0.001
 Diabetes mellitus 9612 (14.3) 8805 (14.0) 807 (17.6) < 0.001
 Peptic ulcer disease 2236 (3.3) 2128 (3.4) 108 (2.4) < 0.001
 Moderate or severe renal disease 2944 (4.4) 2733 (4.4) 211 (4.6) 0.424
 Liver disease 11,993 (17.8) 11,560 (18.4) 433 (9.5) < 0.001
 Congestive heart failure 328 (0.5) 284 (0.5) 44 (1.0) < 0.001
 Solid tumour 4962 (7.4) 4272 (6.8) 690 (15.1) < 0.001
CCI (points), median (Q1- Q3) 1 (0–3) 1 (0–3) 4 (1–5) < 0.001
Time of risk (days), median (Q1- Q3) 7 (4–10) 7 (4–10) 10 (6–16) < 0.001
Admission category, n (%)     < 0.001
 Internal medicine 27,769 (41.3) 25,487 (40.6) 2282 (49.8)  
 Surgery 19,556 (29.1) 18,110 (28.9) 1446 (31.6)  
 Gynaecology 15,548 (23.1) 15,084 (24.1) 464 (10.1)  
 Emergency department 3172 (4.7) 2902 (4.6) 270 (5.9)  
 ICU 203 (0.3) 137 (0.2) 66 (1.4)  
 Others 1032 (1.5) 982 (1.6) 50 (1.1)  
Clinical procedure, n (%)
 Central venous catheter 1762 (2.6) 1294 (2.1) 468 (10.2) < 0.001
 Indwelling urinary catheter 13,823 (20.5) 12,972 (20.7) 851 (18.6) < 0.001
 Surgery 20,979 (31.2) 20,161 (32.2) 818 (17.9) < 0.001
 Parenteral nutrition 1479 (2.2) 1077 (1.7) 402 (8.8) < 0.001
 Enteral tube feeding 5698 (8.5) 4849 (7.7) 849 (18.5) < 0.001
Barthel Index, n (%)     < 0.001
 Independent 43,273 (64.3) 41,706 (66.5) 1567 (34.2)  
 Slight dependency 6057 (9.0) 5601 (8.9) 456 (10.0)  
 Moderate dependency 10,085 (15.0) 9109 (14.5) 976 (21.3)  
 Severe dependency 6495 (9.7) 5461 (8.7) 1034 (22.6)  
 Total dependency 1370 (2.0) 825 (1.3) 545 (11.9)  
Morse Fall Scale, n (%)     < 0.001
 No Risk 41,008 (61.0) 39,220 (62.5) 1788 (39.1)  
 Low Risk 21,697 (32.2) 19,805 (31.6) 1892 (41.3)  
 High Risk 4575 (6.8) 3677 (5.9) 898 (19.6)  
Other nosocomial infections, n (%) 1137 (1.7) 983 (1.6) 154 (3.4) < 0.001
Season of admission, n (%)     < 0.001
 Spring 16,431 (24.4) 15,356 (24.5) 1075 (23.5)  
 Summer 18,652 (27.7) 17,451 (27.8) 1201 (26.2)  
 Fall 14,497 (21.5) 13,390 (21.4) 1107 (24.2)  
 Winter 17,700 (26.3) 16,505 (26.3) 1195 (26.1)  
In-hospital medications, n (%)
 Antacids 37,406 (55.6) 34,396 (54.9) 3010 (65.7) < 0.001
 Sedatives 6615 (9.8) 5889 (9.4) 726 (15.9) < 0.001
 NSAID 6503 (9.7) 5879 (9.4) 624 (13.6) < 0.001
 Systemic steroid 13,231 (19.7) 12,445 (19.8) 786 (17.2) < 0.001
 Inhaled steroid 4281 (6.4) 3760 (6.0) 521 (11.4) < 0.001
 Anticoagulant 8972 (13.3) 8229 (13.1) 743 (16.2) < 0.001
NV-HAP 353(0.5) 232(0.4) 121(2.6) < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: NRS Nutritional risk screening, Q1 First quartile, Q3 Third quartile, COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CCI Charlson comorbidity index, ICU Intensive care unit, NSAID Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, NV-HAP Nonventilator hospital-acquired pneumonia
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