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Table 2 Baseline characteristics overall and separated by blood culture positivity and negative or contaminated blood cultures

From: Early prediction of blood stream infection in a prospectively collected cohort

Characteristics Total
n = 484
Missing value
n (%)
Blood culture
Positive
n = 84
Negative/contamination
n = 400
p
General characteristics
 Age, mean (SD) 64.6 (±19.3) 0 69.6 (±17.0) 63.6 (±19.6) 0.03
 Male sex 272 (56.1) 0 52 (61.9) 220 (54.9) ns
Comorbidities
 Diabetes 69 (14.2) 0 12 (14.3) 57 (14.2) ns
 Heart failure 64 (13.2) 0 14 (16.7) 50 (12.5) ns
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 39 (8.0) 0 8 (9.5) 31 (7.7) ns
 Kidney failure 20 (4.1) 0 5 (6.0) 15 (3.7) ns
Charlson comorbidity index      ns
 - 0 211 (43.5) 0 33 (39.3) 178 (44.4)  
 - 1 99 (20.4) 0 17 (20.2) 82 (20.4)  
 - > 2 175 (36.1) 0 34 (40.5) 141 (35.2)  
Clinical scores
 SIRS criteria fulfilled 325 (67.0) 6 (1.2) 70 (83.3) 255 (63.6) < 0.05
 qSOFA ≥2 points 246 (50.7) 0 47 (56.0) 199 (49.6) ns
 SOFA score, median (IQR) 1 (0–2) 0a 1 (0–2) 1 (0–2) ns
 Sepsis-3 Criteria fulfilled 155 (32) 0a 32 (38) 123 (30.8) ns
 Modified Early Warning Scale, Median (IQR) 3 (2–5) 18 (3.7) 4 (2–5) 3 (2–5) < 0.05
 Shapiro ≥2 points 320 (66.1) 0 72 (85.7) 248 (61.8) < 0.001
 Shapiro score, median (IQR) 2 (1–3) 0 3 (2–4) 2 (1–3) < 0.001
Antibiotic therapy
 Antibiotic treatment at inclusion 89 (18.4) 0 4 (4.8) 85 (21.2) < 0.001
 Antibiotic prescription < 14 before inclusion 85 (17.6)   10 (11.9) 75 (18.8) ns
Suspected infection site
 Lower respiratory tract 163 (33.6) 0 25 (29.8) 138 (34.4) ns
 Urinary tract 120 (24.7) 0 42 (50.0) 78 (19.5) < 0.001
 Skin and soft tissue 88 (18.1) 0 13 (15.5) 75 (18.7) ns
 Abscess 33 (6.8) 0 4 (4.8) 29 (7.2) ns
Vital parameters at admission. Median (IQR)
 Respiratory rate 21 (18–26) 13(2.7) 23 (18–30) 20 (18–25) ns
 Pulse rate, beats per minute 94 (81–106) 4 (0.8) 100 (77–110) 93 (82–106) ns
 Body temperature °C 38.4 (37.7–39.1) 7 (1.4) 38.8 (38.1–39.6) 38.3 (37.6–39.0) < 0.001
 Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg 135 (120–150) 4 (0.8) 134 (120–155) 135 (120–150) ns
 Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg 79 (70–85) 13 (2.7) 75 (61–85) 80 (70–85) ns
 Mean Arterial Pressure, mm Hg 96 (87–106) 13 (2.7) 93 (83–107) 97 (87–105) ns
Laboratory values. Median (IQR)
 WBC ×  109/L 11.5 (8.7–15.2) 8 (1.6) 13.7 (9.2–17.1) 11.2 (8.6–14.5) < 0.05
 Neutrophil cell count × 109/L 9.2 (6.3–12.5) 12 (2.5) 11.3 (7.2–14.8) 8.7 (6.2–11.9) < 0.05
 Neutrophil Lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) 9.3 (5.1–16.1) 16 (3.3) 16.2 (10.0–25.1) 8.2 (4.7–14.6) < 0.001
 Serum lactate (mmol/L) 1.6 (1.2–2.2) 53 (10.9) 2.1 (1.4–2.8) 1.6 (1.2–2.0) < 0.001
 Lymphocyte cell count × 109/L 1.0 (0.7–1.5) 16 (3.3) 0.7 (0.3–1.2) 1.1 (0.7–1.6) < 0.001
 Creatinine (μmol/L) 84.0 (68–107) 14 (2.9) 91 (73–128) 83 (67–106) < 0.05
 Bilirubine (μmol/L) 13.0 (10–18) 24 (4.9) 15 (12–19) 13 (9–18) < 0.05
 C-reactive protein (mg/L) 98 (41–198) 1 (0.2) 109 (47–196) 98 (40–198) ns
  1. aSOFA-score and Sepsis-3 was calculated in all patients although some patients were missing individual values for SOFA-criteria