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Table 2 Clinical course and case management among fatal measles cases and non-fatal measles controls — Romania, 2016–2018

From: Risk factors for measles deaths among children during a Nationwide measles outbreak – Romania, 2016–2018

Variable Cases (n = 50)n (%) Controls (n = 250)n (%) p valuea
Clinical course & case management
Days to hospitalization after rash onset
  0 day 18 (36.0) 80 (32.0) REF
  1 day 7 (14.0) 66 (26.4) 0.116
   > 1 day 16 (32.0) 60 (24.0) 0.452
Type of hospital admitted
  District, Local and Clinical hospitals 9 (18.0) 80 (32.0) REF
  Emergency hospital 8 (16.0) 25 (10.0) 0.015
  Specialty hospital 24 (48.0) 101 (40.4) 0.016
Treatment received (yes/no)
  Vitamin A (any) 5 (10.0) 10 (4.0) 0.076
  Antibiotics (any) 47 (94.0) 225 (90.0) 0.997
Respiratory complications (yes/no)
  Bronchitis 18 (36.0) 23 (9.2) 0.000
  Laryngitis 3 (6.0) 27 (10.8) 0.289
  Pneumonia 45 (90.0) 180 (72.0) 0.002
  Acute respiratory distress syndrome 27 (54.0) 16 (6.4) 0.000
  Influenza 1 (2.0) 0 (0.0) 0.997
Chest radiograph findings (yes/no)
  Bilateral consolidation 13 (26.0) 4 (1.6) 0.000
  Interstitial pattern 14 (28.0) 75 (30.0) 0.899
  None performed 18 (36.0) 124 (49.6) 0.093
Neurologic complications (yes/no)
  Encephalitis 3 (6.0) 3 (1.2) 0.051
  Meningitis 2 (4.0) 0 (0.0) 0.998
  Seizure 4 (8.0) 4 (1.6) 0.028
Other complications (yes/no)
  Diarrhea 4 (8.0) 61 (24.4) 0.009
  1. aExact conditional logistic regression tests that the distribution of the study participants was different between the case and control groups, excluding “Unknown” categories