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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the primary analysis cohorts

From: Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors and susceptibility to COVID-19 in patients with hypertension: a propensity score-matched cohort study in primary care

Primary Analysis Cohort Unmatched Propensity score matched Unmatched Propensity score matched
ACE-I (n = 31,194) CCB (n = 27,500) ACE-I (n = 18,895) CCB (n = 18,895) ARB (n = 13,377) CCB (n = 27,500) ARB (n = 10,623) CCB (n = 10,623)
Age, mean (SD) 60.8 (11.7) 67.4 (10.8) 64.7 (11.2) 63.4 (9.6) 63.8 (11.3) 67.4 (10.8) 65.0 (11.1) 64.55 (11.5)
Age categories, n (%)
 18–30 years 123 (0.4) 28 (0.1) 34 (0.2) 28 (0.2) 23 (0.2) 28 (0.1) 14 (0.1) 26 (0.2)
 30–40 years 875 (2.8) 309 (1.1) 213 (1.1) 308 (1.6) 206 (1.5) 309 (1.1) 118 (1.1) 238 (2.2)
 40–50 years 4466 (14.3) 1302 (4.7) 1445 (7.7) 1297 (6.9) 1298 (9.7) 1302 (4.7) 834 (7.9) 865 (8.1)
 50–60 years 10,214 (32.7) 4836 (17.6) 5018 (26. 6) 4694 (24.8) 3556 (26.6) 4836 (17.6) 2623 (24.7) 2472 (23.3)
 60–70 years 8448 (27.1) 9521 (34.6) 5879 (31. 1) 7969 (42.2) 4157 (31.1) 9521 (34.6) 3388 (31.9) 3497 (32.9)
 70–80 years 5380 (17.3) 8376 (30.5) 4666 (24.7) 3974 (21.0) 3097 (23.2) 8376 (30.5) 2703 (25.4) 2617 (24.6)
 > 80 years 1688 (5.4) 3128 (11.4) 1640 (8.7) 625 (3.3) 1040 (7.8) 3128 (11.4) 943 (8.9) 908 (8.6)
Sex (Male), n (%) 15,213 (48.8) 12,547 (45.6) 8870 (46.9) 9243 (48.9) 5379 (40.2) 12,547 (45.6) 4628 (43.6) 4463 (42.0)
Smoker categories, n (%)
 Non Smoker 17,968 (57.6) 15,514 (56.4) 10,725 (56.8) 10,668 (56.5) 8390 (62.7) 15,514 (56.4) 6384 (60.1) 6473 (60.9)
 Ex-Smoker 9073 (29.1) 8329 (30.3) 5677 (30.0) 5700 (30.2) 3865 (28.9) 8329 (30.3) 3186 (30.0) 3137 (29.5)
 Smoker 3962 (12.7) 3483 (12.7) 2402 (12.7) 2431 (12.9) 1058 (7.9) 3483 (12.7) 1005 (9.5) 967 (9.1)
 Missing 191 (0.6) 174 (0.6) 91 (0.5) 96 (0.5) 64 (0.5) 174 (0.6) 48 (0.5) 46 (0.4)
Drinker Categories, n (%)
 Non-drinker 4716 (15.1) 4186 (15.2) 2874 (15.2) 2856 (15.1) 2013 (15.1) 4186 (15.2) 1587 (14.9) 1508 (14.2)
 Drinker without excess 11,716 (37.6) 10,281 (37.4) 7082 (37.5) 7134 (37.8) 5157 (38.6) 10,281 (37.4) 4023 (37.9) 3976 (37.4)
 Excessive Drinker 7614 (24.4) 6238 (22.7) 4464 (23.6) 4673 (24.7) 2908 (21.7) 6238 (22.7) 2414 (22.7) 2368 (22.3)
 Missing 7148 (22.9) 6795 (24.7) 4475 (23.7) 4232 (22.4) 3299 (24.7) 6795 (24.7) 2599 (24.5) 2771 (26.1)
BMI, mean (SD) 30.3 (6.4) 28.44 (5.6) 29.36 (6.0) 29.48 (5.7) 30.37 (6.2) 28.44 (5.6) 29.58 (5.9) 29.65 (5.9)
BMI Categories, n (%)
 Underweight (< 18.5) 173 (0.6) 343 (1.3) 151 (0.8) 105 (0. 6) 67 (0.5) 343 (1.3) 65 (0.6) 62 (0.6)
 Underweight (< 25) 5597 (17.9) 6898 (25.1) 4059 (21.5) 3645 (19.3) 2243 (16.8) 6898 (25.1) 2074 (19.5) 2033 (19.1)
 Overweight (25–30) 10,948 (35.1) 10,536 (38.3) 7156 (37.9) 7171 (38.0) 4718 (35.3) 10,536 (38.3) 4055 (38.2) 3894 (36.7)
 Obese (> 30) 13,300 (42.6) 8470 (30.8) 6771 (35.8) 7271 (38.5) 5854 (43.8) 8470 (30.8) 4004 (37.7) 4185 (39.4)
 Missing 1176 (3.8) 1253 (4.6) 758 (4.0) 703 (3.7) 495 (3.7) 1253 (4.6) 425 (4.0) 449 (4.2)
Hypertension duration, mean years (SD) 9.8 (7.4) 8.6 (7.5) 9.4 (6.9) 9.4 (8.0) 11.4 (7.5) 8.6 (7.5) 10.5 (7.0) 11.3 (8.3)
Age at hypertension diagnosis, mean (SD) 51.0 (10.9) 58.8 (11.2) 55.3 (10.4) 54.0 (9.1) 52.4 (10.9) 58.8 (11.2) 54.5 (10.4) 53.2 (11.0)
Systolic BP, mean (SD) 135.9 (13.8) 137.3 (13.6) 136.7 (14.0) 136.4 (13.1) 136.3 (13.6) 137.3 (13.6) 136.8 (13.6) 136.6 (13.4)
Diastolic BP, mean (SD) 81.7 (9.4) 79.76 (9.3) 80.6 (9.3) 81.09 (9.0) 80.8 (9.1) 79.8 (9.3) 80.5 (9.2) 80.5 (9.3)
Missing, n (%) 80 (0.3) 63 (0.2) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 22 (0.2) 63 (0.2) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
Cholesterol, mean (SD) 5.13 (1.03) 5.13 (1.04) 5.12 (1.04) 5.13 (1.04) 5.13 (1.01) 5.13 (1.04) 5.14 (1.02) 5.13 (1.03)
Cholesterol Categories, n (%)
 < 5.2 mmol/L 17,051 (54.7) 14,915 (54.2) 10,430 (55.2) 10,394 (55.0) 7415 (55.4) 14,915 (54.2) 5820 (54.8) 5894 (55.5)
 5.2–6.2 mmol/L 8852 (28.4) 7712 (28.0) 5262 (27.9) 5323 (28.2) 3836 (28.7) 7712 (28.0) 3026 (28.5) 2929 (27.6)
 > = 6.2 mmol/L 4153 (13.3) 3747 (13.6) 2543 (13.5) 2580 (13.7) 1699 (12.7) 3747 (13.6) 1419 (13.4) 1404 (13.2)
 Missing 1138 (3.7) 1126 (4.1) 660 (3.5) 598 (3.2) 427 (3.2) 1126 (4.1) 358 (3.4) 396 (3.7)
HDL, mean (SD) 1.44 (0.43) 1.54 (0.46) 1.49 (0.44) 1.48 (0.44) 1.48 (0.43) 1.54 (0.46) 1.50 (0.44) 1.50 (0.45)
HDL categories, n (%)
 < 1.55 mmol/L 19,720 (63.2) 14,873 (54.1) 10,949 (58.0) 11,464 (60. 7) 8160 (61.0) 14,873 (54.1) 6214 (58.5) 6251 (58.8)
 > = 1.55 mmol/L 9851 (31.6) 11,114 (40.4) 7007 (37.1) 6566 (34.8) 4621 (34.5) 11,114 (40.4) 3915 (36.9) 3818 (35.9)
 Missing 1623 (5.20) 1513 (5.5) 939 (5.0) 865 (4.6) 596 (4.5) 1513 (5.5) 494 (4.7) 554 (5.2)
eGFR, mean (SD) 86.1 (14.7) 82.8 (13.8) 83.33 (14.3) 85.08 (14.0) 82.9 (14.6) 82.8 (13.8) 82.36 (14.2) 83.89 (14.7)
eGFR category, n (%)
 > 60 (Stage 2 and above) 29,735 (95.3) 25,680 (93.4) 17,806 (94.2) 17,924 (94.9) 12,538 (93.7) 25,680 (93.4) 9981 (94.0) 9927 (93.5)
 30–59(Stage 3) 1127 (3.6) 1270 (4.6) 847 (4.5) 792 (4.2) 713 (5.3) 1270 (4.6) 530 (5.0) 578 (5.4)
 Missing 332 (1.1) 550 (2.0) 242 (1.3) 179 (1.0) 126 (0.9) 550 (2.0) 112 (1.1) 118 (1.1)
Baseline conditions, n (%)
 Atrial fibrillation 726 (2.3) 743 (2.7) 503 (2.7) 502 (2.7) 384 (2.9) 743 (2.7) 318 (3.0) 332 (3.1)
 Rheumatoid arthritis 460 (1.5) 497 (1.8) 329 (1.7) 297 (1.6) 199 (1.5) 497 (1.8) 161 (1.5) 166 (1. 6)
 Cancer 2525 (8.1) 3320 (12.1) 1921 (10.2) 1711 (9.1) 1377 (10.3) 3320 (12.1) 1151 (10.8) 1139 (10.7)
 Respiratory Disease 1325 (4.3) 1695 (6.2) 1010 (5.4) 933 (4.9) 664 (5.0) 1695 (6.2) 586 (5.5) 572 (5.4)
 Immunosuppresseda 571 (1.8) 616 (2.2) 392 (2.1) 358 (1.9) 239 (1.8) 616 (2.2) 205 (1.9) 198 (1.9)
 Rare metabolic disorder 29 (0.1) 38 (0.1) 23 (0.1) 18 (0.1) 18 (0.1) 38 (0.1) 15 (0.1) 13 (0.1)
Other medications at baseline, n (%)
 Previous prescription of ACE-I 31,194 (100) 6030 (21.9) 18,895 (100) 4462 (23.6) 8421 (63.0) 6030 (21.9) 5686 (53.5) 5638 (53.1)
 Previous prescription of ARB 1036 (3.3) 1907 (6.9) 937 (5.0) 762 (4.0) 13,377 (100) 1907 (6.9) 10,623 (100) 1492 (14.0)
 Previous prescription of CCB 8242 (26.4) 27,500 (100) 5554 (29.4) 18,895 (100) 5393 (40.3) 27,500 (100) 4001 (37.7) 10,623 (100)
 Thiazide diuretics 5775 (18.5) 3919 (14.3) 5775 (18.5) 3919 (14.3) 3457 (25.8) 3919 (14.3) 2074 (19.5) 2468 (23.2)
 Loop diuretics 768 (2.5) 461 (1.7) 768 (2.5) 461 (1.7) 417 (3.1) 461 (1.7) 331 (3.1) 219 (2.1)
 Potassium diuretics 148 (0.5) 101 (0.4) 148 (0.5) 101 (0.4) 85 (0.6) 101 (0.4) 59 (0.6) 69 (0.7)
 Alpha blockers 1017 (3.3) 659 (2.4) 1017 (3.3) 659 (2.4) 661 (4.9) 659 (2.4) 430 (4.1) 481 (4.5)
 Beta blockers 3525 (11.3) 3030 (11.0) 3525 (11.3) 3030 (11.0) 1630 (12.2) 3030 (11.0) 1302 (12.3) 1423 (13.4)
 Other antihypertensive 122 (0.4) 84 (0.3) 122 (0.4) 84 (0.3) 71 (0.5) 84 (0.3) 48 (0. 5) 48 (0.5)
 Anticoagulants 884 (2.8) 889 (3.2) 884 (2.8) 889 (3.2) 446 (3.3) 889 (3.2) 370 (3.5) 385 (3.6)
 Statins 9399 (30.1) 9133 (33.2) 9399 (30.1) 9133 (33.2) 3977 (29.7) 9133 (33.2) 3293 (31.0) 3230 (30.4)
  1. a(Treatment with immunosuppressive therapies/antibody treatment/solid organ transplant/ chemo/radiotherapies)
  2. ACE-I angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin II receptor blocker, CCB calcium channel blocker