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Table 2 Bi-variable and multivariable ordinary logistic regression analysis of sputum smear grading among bacteriological confirmed pulmonary DR-TB patients (N = 520)

From: Sputum smear grading and associated factors among bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary drug-resistant tuberculosis patients in Ethiopia

Variables Categories Frequency (%) Smear grading of DR-TB COR (95%CI) AOR (95%CI)
    0 1–9 1+ 2+ 3+   
Sex Male 296 (56.92) 40 53 56 44 103 1  
  Female 224 (43.08) 45 26 39 38 76 0.93 (0.68, 1.27)  
Age in year = < 24 162 (31.15) 30 26 36 20 50 1 1
  25–44 271 (52.12) 38 42 41 50 100 1.39 (0.98, 1.96) 1.27 (0.87, 1.95)
  > = 45 87 (16.73) 17 11 18 12 29 1.10 (0.69, 1.75) 1.01 (0.56, 1.83)
Residence Urban 276 (53.18) 47 40 50 45 94 1  
  Rural 243 (46.82) 38 39 44 37 85 1.03 (0.75, 1.39)  
Educational status No formal education 232 (44.82) 45 33 39 34 81 0.57 (0.34, 0.94) 0.49 (0.23, 1.03)
Primary 138 (26.74) 21 19 32 20 46 0.59 (0.35, 1.02) 0.51 (0.25, 1.05)
Secondary 82 (15.89) 11 20 15 16 20 0.47 (0.26, 0.84) 0.43 (0.21, 0.89)
Certificate and above 64 (12.40) 8 6 9 11 30 1 1
Occupation Employed 55 (10.68) 9 5 8 10 23 1 1
Private business 313 (60.78) 51 48 55 45 114 0.77 (0.46, 1.30) 1.40 (0.65, 3.03)
Unemployed 147 (28.54) 25 26 29 27 40 0.61 (0.35, 1.07) 1.08 (0.49, 2.35)
Marital status Married 250 (48.36) 43 36 42 46 83 1  
Never Married 179 (34.62) 28 26 39 26 60 1.00 (0.71, 1.40)  
Divorced/widowed/Separated 88 (17.02) 14 17 14 10 33 1.01 (0.65, 1.57)  
Housing condition Homeless 26 (5.79) 5 7 4 3 7 0.62 (0.31, 1.27) 0.48 (0.22, 1.04)
Has home 423 (94.21) 62 65 86 68 142 1 1
Has treatment supporter Yes 454 (88.16) 77 68 85 72 152 1 1
No 61 (11.84) 7 9 9 10 26 1.45 (0.89, 2.36) 1.27 (0.75, 2.14)
History of Cigarette smoking Yes 73 (14.04) 7 12 7 14 33 1.71 (1.09, 2.70) 1.45 (0.77, 2.73)
No 447 (85.96) 78 67 88 68 146 1 1
History of alcohol drinking Yes 83 (16.02) 7 19 14 13 30 1.16 (0.77, 1.76)  
No 435 (83.98) 78 60 81 68 148 1  
History of khat Chewing Yes 39 (7.53) 3 7 3 6 20 2.01 (1.08, 3.71) 1.62 (0.67, 3.90)
No 479 (92.47) 82 72 92 75 158 1 1
Comorbid disease Yes 78 (15.00) 10 12 10 16 30 1.31 (0.85, 2.02)  
No 442 (85.00) 75 67 85 66 149 1  
Body mass index (kg/m2) < 16 217 (42.14) 42 32 32 31 80 1.29 (0.87, 1.92) 1.46 (0.94, 2.25)
16–18.49 171 (33.20) 17 22 37 33 62 1.65 (1.10, 2.48) 1.81 (1.16, 2.84)
> = 18.5 127 (24.66) 24 25 24 17 37 1 1
Number of TB Treatmant history Less than two 249 (47.88) 51 44 42 33 79 1 1
Two and more 271 (52.12) 34 35 53 49 100 1.51 (1.11, 2.05) 1.78 (1.24, 2.55)
  1. Test of parallel lines (logit): Chi-Square = 45.667 p-value = 0.322, Goodness of fit in the Chi-Square test: Pearson (p-value = 0.582) and Deviance (p-value = 0.990), and Model information (pseudo R2): p-value = 0.0266
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