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Table 1 Characteristics of the patients with IDU-IE and non-IDU-IE admitted between 2008 and 2017

From: Patients with infective endocarditis and history of injection drug use in a Swedish referral hospital during 10 years

Clinical characteristics IDU-IE (n = 165 (%)) Non-IDU IE (n = 357 (%)) P value
Women 55 (33) 119 (33) 1.00
Men 110 (67) 238 (67) 1.00
Age, mean (± SD); median (25th and 75th percentiles) 41.6 (11.9); 44 (31, 50) 64.3 (16.4); 67 (56, 76) <  0.01
Predisposing factors
 Bicuspid aortic valve 0 (0) 20 (6) < 0.01
 Prosthetic valve 12 (7) 83 (23) <  0.01
 CIED 2 (1) 38 (11) <  0.01
 Rheumatic heart disease 0 (0) 2 (1) 1.00
 Congenital heart disease 0 (0) 8 (2) 0.06
 History of IE 49 (30) 34 (10) <  0.01
 Known valvular disease 3 (2) 78 (22) <  0.01
 Heart failure before or under IE treatment 19 (12) 45 (13) 0.72
Patients fulfilling Duke’s major criteria
 Blood culture positive for IE 144 (87) 304 (85) 0.78
 Echocardiography positive for IEa 165 (100) 287 (80) <  0.01
Patients fulfilling Duke’s minor criteria
 Fever 150 (91) 304 (85) 0.07
 Vascular phenomena 101 (61) 120 (34) <  0.01
 Spondylitis 25 (15) 30 (9) 0.02
 Pulmonary septic emboli 55 (33) 11 (3) < 0.01
 New heart murmur 20 (12) 63 (18) 0.11
 Immunological phenomenon 2 (1) 19 (5) 0.03
Outcomes
 Surgery 27 (16) 121 (34) <  0.01
 In-hospital mortality 7 (4) 27 (8) 0.15
 Relapse during follow upb 1 (0) 4 (1) 1.00
 Re-infected during follow upb 2 (1) 1 (0) 0.24
  1. aIn total, 101 (61%) of the IDU-IE patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography and 137 (83%) patients underwent transoesophageal echocardiography during hospital stay. bFollow up within 6 months from discharge. Significant P values are marked in bold font. Abbreviations: CIED cardiovascular implantable electronic device; IDU injection drug use; IE infective endocarditis; n number of patients; SD standard deviation