Skip to main content

Table 6 Univariate and multivariate analysis of factors associated with sputum H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis colonisation

From: Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profiles of respiratory microbial flora in African children with HIV-associated chronic lung disease

Variable No. observations (n = 400) § Haemophilus influenzae Moraxella catarrhalis
No. isolates (n = 14)σ OR [95% CI] p Adjusted OR [95% CI] p No. isolates (n = 34)ξ OR [95% CI] p Adjusted OR [95% CI] p
Group
 CLD- 18% (74) 14% (2) Reference   Reference   12% (4) Reference   Reference  
 CLD+ 82% (326) 86% (12) 1.4 [0.4–9.0] 0.68 0.8 [0.1–6.6] 0.82 88% (30) 1.8 [0.7–6.1] 0.30 1.4 [0.5–5.0] 0.6
Study site
 Malawi 27% (108) 43% (6) Reference   Reference   38% (13) Reference   Reference  
 Zimbabwe 73% (292) 57% (8) 0.5 [0.2–1.5] 0.18 1.1 [0.2–7.7] 0.88 62% (21) 0.6 [0.3–1.2] 0.13 0.6 [0.2–1.7] 0.36
Sex
 Female 52% (207) 57% (8) Reference   Reference   59% (20) Reference   Reference  
 Male 48% (193) 43% (6) 0.8 [0.3–2.3] 0.68 1.5 [0.4–5.8] 0.53 41% (14) 0.7 [0.4–1.5] 0.39 0.6 [0.3–1.3] 0.18
Season of sample collection
 Dec–Apr - Rainy 36% (143) 50% (7) Reference   Reference   32% (11) Reference   Reference  
 May–Aug - Cool 39% (157) 43% (6) 0.8 [0.2–2.4] 0.32 0.9 [0.2–3.7] 0.42 38% (13) 1.1 [0.5–2.6] 0.81 1.0 [0.4–2.6] 0.65
 Sep–Nov - Hot 25% (100) 7% (1) 0.2 [0.01–1.1] 0.2 [0.0–1.6] 29% (10) 1.3 [0.5–3.3] 1.5 [0.6–3.9]
Enrolment age category
 17-19y 33% (130) 14% (2) Reference   Reference   24% (8) Reference   Reference  
 13-16y 40% (161) 57% (8) 3.3 [0.8–22.4] 0.32 6.1 [0.9–119.9] 0.24 56% (19) 2.0 [0.9–5.1] 0.16 1.6 [0.6–4.0] 0.39
 6-12y 27% (109) 29% (4) 2.4 [0.5–17.8] 6.7 [0.9–140.2] 21% (7) 1.0 [0.4–3.0] 0.9 [0.3–2.6]
Number of years on ART
 6 m- < 2y 9% (35) 9% (1) Reference   Reference   15% (5) Reference   Reference  
 2- < 4y 18% (71) 9% (1) 0.5 [0.0–12.5] 0.58 0.3 [0.0–8.6] 0.68 24% (8) 0.8 [0.2–2.7] 0.38 0.8 [0.2–2.9] 0.39
 4y- < 6y 20% (79) 36% (4) 1.8 [0.3–36.2] 1.3 [0.1–27.4] 18% (6) 0.5 [0.1–1.8] 0.5 [0.1–2.0]
 6y+ 53% (208) 45% (5) 0.8 [0.1–16.3] 0.8 [0.1–16.4] 42% (14) 0.4 [0.2–1.4] 0.4 [0.1–1.4]
CD4 count
  > 500 63% (251) 43% (6) Reference     62% (21) Reference    
 200–500 28% (110) 21% (3) 1.1 [0.2–4.4] 0.01    26% (9) 1.0 [0.4–2.1] 0.9   
  < 200 10% (38) 36% (5) 6.2 [1.7–21.7]    12% (4) 1.3 [0.4–3.6]   
Enrolment viral load
 Unsuppressed 42% (169) 64% (9) Reference   Reference   47% (16) Reference   Reference  
 Suppressed 58% (231) 36% (5) 0.4 [0.1–1.2] 0.1 0.4 [0.1–1.3] 0.13 53% (18) 0.8 [0.4–1.7] 0.55 0.8 [0.4–1.8] 0.64
ART regimen
 PI-based regimen - 2nd line 24% (98) 14% (2) Reference   Reference   29% (10) Reference   Reference  
 NNRTI-based regimen -1st line 76% (302) 86% (12) 3.9 [0.8–72.1] 0.19 3.9 [0.6–77.4] 0.23 71% (24) 0.8 [0.4–2.0] 0.66 0.7 [0.3–1.9] 0.49
Ever treated for TB
 No 74% (294) 64% (9) Reference   Reference   76% (26) Reference   Reference  
 Yes 26% (104) 36% (5) 1.6 [0.5–4.7] 0.41 3.2 [0.8–12.3] 0.09 24% (8) 0.9 [0.4–1.9] 0.72 0.8 [0.3–2.0] 0.68
Enrolment weight- for-age- z-score
 Not underweight 54% (217) 50% (7) Reference     32% (11) Reference    
 Underweight 46% (183) 50% (7) 1.2 [0.4–3.6] 0.75    68% (23) 2.7 [1.3–5.9] 0.01   
Enrolment height-for-age- z-score -
 Not stunted 55% (218) 57% (8) Reference   Reference   41% (14) Reference   Reference  
 Stunted 46% (182) 43% (6) 0.9 [0.3–2.6] 0.84 1.4 [0.4–5.3] 0.65 59% (20) 1.8 [0.9–3.7] 0.11 1.7 [0.8–3.9] 0.17
Ever repeated a grade
 No 46% (180) 50% (7) Reference     39% (13) Reference    
 Yes 54% (211) 50% (7) 0.9 [0.3–2.5] 0.76    61% (20) 1.4 [0.7–2.9] 0.43   
MRC dyspnoea score
 1 or 0 60% (240) 57% (8) Reference   Reference   56% (19) Reference   Reference  
  > 1 40% (159) 43% (6) 1.1 [0.4–3.3] 0.82 0.8 [0.1–4.4] 0.80 44% (15) 1.2 [0.6–2.5] 0.60 0.9 [0.3–2.2] 0.79
  1. § Missing values: Number of years on ART (7), CD4 count (1), Ever treated for TB (2), Ever repeated a grade (9) and MRC dyspnoea score (1). σ n = 11 for the number of years on ART. ξ n = 33 for the number of years on ART & ever repeated a grade. Variables with two levels where a level is less than 10% of total observations were not tested for associations. This included current school attendance and taking cotrimoxazole. Variables that have values in the adjusted odd ratios column were included in the multivariate model for that bacteria. Variables with p values <0.25 were included in the multivariate model except where they are colinear with another variable within the model. Weight-for-age was colinear with Height-for-age and hence excluded from the model. Ever repeated a grade was excluded because of co-linearity with MRC score. CD4 count is colinear with viral load suppression. Clinically relevant variables (a priori-defined) that were included in the multivariate model regardless of significance were group, age, sex, site, season of sample collection, number of years on ART, enrolment viral load, ART regimen, ever treated for TB, enrolment height-for-age z-score and MRC dyspnoea score