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Table 3 A summary of urine markers, clinical complications, and ultrasound findings of children with AP

From: Clinical manifestations, laboratory markers, and renal ultrasonographic examinations in 1-month to 12-year-old Iranian children with pyelonephritis: a six-year cross-sectional retrospective study

Findings Observed Non-observed
Frequency (n) Percentage (%) Frequency (n) Percentage (%)
Urine marker
 Pyuria 92 88.46 12 11.54
 Hematuria 40 38.46 64 61.54
 Positive nitrite 47 45.19 57 54.81
Clinical complication
 Abdominal pain 35 33.65 69 66.35
 Constipation 21 20.19 83 79.81
 Dysuria 30 28.84 74 71.16
 Vomiting 42 40.38 62 59.62
Ultrasound
 Hydronephrosis 22 21.15 82 78.85
 Cystitis 9 8.65 95 91.35
 Stone 0 0.00 104 100
 Anomaly 2 1.92 102 98.08
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