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Table 2 Cox univariate analysis of confirmed cases by demographic, clinical and exposure factors, Nigeria 2019, (n = 389)

From: Factors associated with delayed presentation to healthcare facilities for Lassa fever cases, Nigeria 2019: a retrospective cohort study

Characteristic Stratum Hazard ratio Crude 95% CI Crude p-value Proportional Hazard test of assumption
Sex Male Ref 0.97 0.28
Female 1.10 0.82–1.23   
Age (per year)   1.00 0.99–1.01 0.95 0.05
Age group (years) 0–4 Ref 0.76 0.11
5–12 1.08 0.60–1.89   
13–17 1.25 0.71–2.21   
18–25 0.91 0.55–1.53   
26–59 0.97 0.61–1.53   
60+ 1.11 0.63–1.96   
Mortality status Dead Ref   
Alive 0.97 0.73–1.28 0.81 0.45
Rurality Rural Ref 0.34 0.37
Semi-urban 1.39 0.79–2.46
Urban 1.15 0.89–1.49
Malaria prevalence category 0–11% Ref 0.37 0.88
12–21% 0.98 0.36–2.71
22–29% 4.15 0.74–23.44
30–36% 1.00 0.36–2.83
37–64% 0.85 0.28–2.64
Education status Primary Ref 0.38 0.97
Secondary 1.44 0.81–2.55
Tertiary 1.1 0.63–1.91
Occupation group Not working or retired Ref 0.95 0.65
Student or Child or Apprentice 1.13 0.57–2.23
Housewife 0.89 0.42–1.88
Farmer 1.21 0.58–2.54
Casual labourer 1.26 0.16–10.02
Transporter 0.91 0.30–2.72
Religious or Traditionala 1.45 0.51–4.10
Artisan 1.15 0.47–2.78
Business or Professionala 1.10 0.55–2.18
Health Worker 1.47 0.61–3.55
Symptom severity Mild Ref 0.90 0.61
Severe 1.03 0.65–1.63   
Exposure to rodents No Ref 0.69 0.82
Yes 1.23 0.45–3.34   
Exposure to confirmed case No Ref 0.77 0.93
Yes 0.94 0.64–1.38   
History of Travel No Ref 0.76 0.26
Yes 1.04 0.81–1.34   
Attended a funeral No Ref 0.79 0.35
Yes 0.65 0.09–4.68   
Participated in a funeral (touched body) No Ref 0.92 0.64
Yes 1.05 0.38–2.90   
  1. a Business or professional: A business person here refers to one who earns profit by supplying goods and services while a professional refers to someone with specified qualifications or expertise who gets paid for rendering services. Religious or Traditional: Traditional healers use indigenous plants, herbs and the root of plants to heal sick people while religious healer use prayers predominantly to heal sick people
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