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Table 1 Lassa fever case characteristics and time to presentation, Nigeria 2019, (n = 389)

From: Factors associated with delayed presentation to healthcare facilities for Lassa fever cases, Nigeria 2019: a retrospective cohort study

Characteristic Stratum Number of cases (%) Number of cases attending in 6 or less days (%) Median time to presentation (days) Interquartile range of time to presentation (days) Range of time to presentation (days)
Case definition number of cases Laboratory Confirmed 389 208 (53.4) 6 4–10 1–21
Sex Female 181 (46.5) 101 (55.8) 6 3–10 1–21
Male 207 (53.2) 107 (51.7) 6 4–10 1–21
Unknown 1 (0.3) 0 7 n/a n/a
Age group (years) 0–4 21 (5.4) 11 (52.4) 6 4–13 1–16
5–12 35 (9.0) 20 (57.1) 6 4–9 1–21
13–17 31 (8.0) 22 (71.0) 5 2–8 1–21
18–25 56 (14.4) 33 (58.9) 6 3–10 1–21
26–59 214 (55.0) 107 (50.0) 6 4–10 1–21
60+ 31 (8.0) 14 (45.2) 7 3–10 1–14
Unknown 1 (0.3) 1 (100) 4 n/a n/a
Age group (years) and Sex (n = 387)
Males (n = 206) 0–4 10 (4.9) 3 (30.0) 10 5–15 3–16
5–12 17 (8.3) 11 (64.7) 5 4–8 1–20
13–17 13 (6.3) 11 (84.6) 3 3–6 2–21
18–25 27 (13.1) 16 (59.3) 6 3–10 1–16
26–59 123 (59.7) 59 (48.0) 7 5–10 1–21
60+ 16 (7.8) 6 (37.5) 7 2–10 1–14
Females (n = 181) 0–4 11 (6.1) 8 (72.7) 4 3–7 1–14
5–12 18 (9.9) 9 (50) 6 4–10 1–21
13–17 18 (9.9) 11 (61.1) 5 2–9 1–18
18–25 29 (16) 17 (58.6) 6 3–12 1–21
26–59 90 (49.7) 48 (53.3) 6 4–12 1–20
60+ 15 (8.3) 8 (53.3) 6 3–10 1–14
Mortality status outcome Alive 324 (83.3) 175 (54.0) 6 4–10 1–21
Deceased 65 (16.7) 33 (50.8) 6 3–10 1–19
State of residence Abia* 0 n/a n/a n/a n/a
Adamawa 0 n/a n/a n/a n/a
Akwa Ibom* 0 n/a n/a n/a n/a
Anambra* 0 n/a n/a n/a n/a
Bauchi 36 (9.3) 13 (36.1) 8 6–13 1–21
Bayelsa* 0 n/a n/a n/a n/a
Benue 4 (1.0) 1 (25.0) 8 6–10 5–11
Borno* 0 n/a n/a n/a n/a
Cross River 1 (0.3) 0 15 n/a n/a
Delta 2 (0.5) 0 13.5 13–14 13–14
Ebonyi 33 (8.5) 14 (42.4) 7 4–10 1–14
Edo 171 (44.0) 94 (55.0) 6 4–10 1–21
Enugu 0 n/a n/a n/a n/a
Ekiti* 0 n/a n/a n/a n/a
Federal Capital Territory 1 (0.3) 0 11 n/a n/a
Gombe 1 (0.3) 1 (100) 4 n/a n/a
Imo 1 (0.3) 0 8 n/a n/a
Jigawa* 0 n/a n/a n/a n/a
Kaduna 3 (0.8) 2 (66.7) 5 3–20 3–20
Kano 0 n/a n/a n/a n/a
Katsina* 0 n/a n/a n/a n/a
Kebbi 1 (0.3) 1 (100) 3 n/a n/a
Kogi 2 (0.5) 0 10 8–12 8–12
Kwara 1 (0.3) 1 (100) 2 n/a n/a
Lagos* 0 n/a n/a n/a n/a
Nasarawa 2 (0.5) 0 14.5 8–21 8–21
Niger* 0 n/a n/a n/a n/a
Ogun* 0 n/a n/a n/a n/a
Ondo 87 (22.4) 58 (66.7) 6 3–7 1–20
Osun* 0 n/a n/a n/a n/a
Oyo 1 (0.3) 1 (100) 5 n/a n/a
Plateau 27 (6.9) 13 (48.2) 7 2–13 1–20
Rivers 1 (0.3) 1 (100) 4 n/a n/a
Sokoto* 0 n/a n/a n/a n/a
Taraba 14 (3.6) 8 (57.1) 6 5–14 2–20
Yobe* 0 n/a n/a n/a n/a
Zamfara* 0 n/a n/a n/a n/a
Rurality category (based on state of residence and information from state guidance) Rural 238 (61.2) 124 (52.1) 6 4–11 1–21
Semi-urban 14 (3.6) 7 (50.0) 6.5 4–9 3–12
Urban 134 (34.4) 75 (56.0) 6 4–9 1–20
Unknown 3 (0.8) 2 (66.7) 4 1–15 1–15
Malaria Prevalence category 0–11% 4 (1.0) 1 (25.0) 8 6–10 4–12
12–21% 298 (76.6) 166 (55.7) 6 4–10 1–21
22–29% 3 (0.8) 2 (66.7) 4 2–15 2–15
30–36% 62 (15.9) 27 (43.55) 7 4–10 1–21
37–64% 22 (5.7) 12 (54.6) 7 5–11 2–20
Education status Primary 20 (5.1) 10 (50.0) 6.5 5–9.5 3–20
Secondary 32 (8.2) 19 (59.4) 5 3–9 1–15
Tertiary 35 (9.0) 17 (48.6) 7 3–10 1–20
Unknown 302 (77.6) 162 (53.6) 6 4–10 1–21
Occupation group Artisan 11 (2.8) 6 (54.6) 6 4–11 2–15
Business or Professionala 101 (26.0) 45 (44.6) 7 4–11 1–20
Casual Labourer 1 (0.3) 0 7 n/a n/a
Farmer 35 (9.0) 21 (60.0) 6 4–10 1–19
Health Worker 12 (3.1) 7 (58.3) 4.5 3.5–9.5 2–13
Housewife 32 (8.2) 14 (43.8) 7 5–13 1–21
Religious or Traditionala 6 (1.5) 2 (33.3) 7 5–7 3–10
Student or Child or Apprentice 126 (32.4) 72 (57.1) 6 3–10 1–21
Transporter 5 (1.3) 1 (20.0) 9 7–10 4–15
Not working or Retired 10 (2.6) 4 (40.0) 8.5 3–12 1–14
Unknown 50 (12.9) 36 (72.0) 6 3–7 1–21
Symptoms Mild 123 (31.6) 78 (63.4) 6 4–8 1–21
Severe 22 (5.7) 12 (54.6) 6 3–8 1–14
Unknown 244 (62.7) 118 (48.4) 7 4–11 1–21
First symptom Mild 167 (42.9) 83 (49.7) 7 4–11 1–21
Severe 2 (0.5) 1 (50.0) 8 2–14 2–14
Unknown 220 (56.6) 124 (56.4) 6 4–9.5 1–21
Exposure to confirmed case No 87 (22.4) 43 (49.4) 7 4–9 1–20
Yes 39 (10.0) 20 (51.3) 6 4–10 1–20
Unknown 263 (67.6) 145 (55.1) 6 4–10 1–21
Exposure to rodents No 8 (2.0) 2 (25.0) 9 6.5–16 3–20
Yes 12 (3.1) 4 (33.3) 8 6–12 2–20
Unknown 369 (94.9) 202 (54.7) 6 4–10 1–21
Part of a contact tracing list No 124 (31.4) 57 (46.0) 7 4.5–11 1–21
Yes 36 (9.8) 19 (52.8) 6 3.5–10 1–20
Unknown 229 (58.8) 132 (57.6) 6 3–10 1–21
History of travel No 279 (71.7) 148 (53.1) 6 4–10 1–21
Yes 86 (22.1) 48 (55.8) 6 4–11 1–20
Unknown 24 (6.2) 12 (50.0) 6.5 3–13.5 2–21
Attended a funeral No 230 (59.1) 124 (53.9) 6 3–10 1–21
Yes 1 (0.3) 0 11 n/a n/a
Unknown 158 (40.6) 84 (53.2) 6 5–10 1–21
Participated in a funeral (touched body) No 156 (40.1) 75 (48.1) 7 4–10 1–21
Yes 4 (1.0) 2 (50.0) 6 2–10 2–13
Unknown 229 (58.9) 131 (53.5) 6 4–10 1–21
  1. Includes only those that have a non-missing value for the time to presentation variable and the characteristic and for presentation times between 1 and 21 days
  2. a Business or professional: A business person here refers to one who earns profit by supplying goods and services while a professional refers to someone with specified qualifications or expertise who gets paid for rendering services. Religious or Traditional: Traditional healers use indigenous plants, herbs and the root of plants to heal sick people while religious healer use prayers predominantly to heal sick people
  3. *No information for this state has been reported in this dataset
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