Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics and outcomes

From: Hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of outpatients with mildly symptomatic COVID-19: a multi-center observational study

Characteristics Unmatched Patients (N = 1274) Propensity-score-Matched Patients (N = 1067)
No HCQ (n = 1177) HCQ (n = 97) P-value No HCQ (n = 970) HCQ (n = 97) P-value
Age – median (IQR) 54 (40,64) 57 (44,65) 0.092 54 (40,65) 57 (44,65) 0.055
Gender, n(%)
 Female 583 (49.5) 56 (57.7) 0.148 531 (54.7) 56 (57.7) 0.647
 Male 594 (50.5) 41 (42.3) 439 (45.3) 41 (42.3)
Race/Ethnicity, n(%)
 African American 89 (7.6) 6 (6.2) 0.302 80 (8.2) 6 (6.2) 0.238
 Asian 41 (3.5) 1 (1.0) 38 (3.9) 1 (1.0)
 Caucasian 602 (51.1) 57 (58.8) 497 (51.2) 57 (58.8)
 Hispanic 183 (15.5) 15 (15.5) 160 (16.5) 15 (15.5)
 Other 145 (12.3) 6 (6.2) 111 (11.4) 6 (6.2)
 Missing 117 (9.9) 12 (12.4) 84 (8.7) 12 (12.4)
Nursing Home/Rehab resident, n(%)
 Yes 98 (8.3) 10 (10.3) 0.715 92 (9.5) 10 (10.3) 0.888
 No 989 (84.0) 81 (83.5) 827 (85.3) 81 (83.5)
 Missing 90 (7.6) 6 (6.2) 51 (5.3) 6 (6.2)
Academic vs Community
 Community 935 (79.4) 77 (79.4) > 0.999 768 (79.2) 77 (79.4) > 0.999
 Academic 242 (20.6) 20 (20.6) 202 (20.8) 20 (20.6)
Former or Current Smoker
 Yes 246 (20.9) 24 (24.7) 0.223 206 (21.2) 24 (24.7) 0.672
 No 779 (66.2) 66 (68.0) 679 (70.0) 66 (68.0)
 Missing 152 (12.9) 7 (7.2) 85 (8.8) 7 (7.2)
Comorbidities, n(%)
 Comorbidity Counta
  0 524 (44.5) 27 (27.8) 0.005 364 (37.5) 27 (27.8) 0.157
  1 291 (24.7) 25 (25.8) 258 (26.6) 25 (25.8)
  2 197 (16.7) 23 (23.7) 191 (19.7) 23 (23.7)
   3 165 (14.0) 22 (22.7) 157 (16.2) 22 (22.7)
 Diabetes, n(%)
  Yes 178 (15.1) 17 (17.5) 0.077 167 (17.2) 17 (17.5) 0.951
  No 830 (70.5) 74 (76.3) 750 (77.3) 74 (76.3)
  Missing 169 (14.4) 6 (6.2) 53 (5.5) 6 (6.2)
 COPD/asthma, n(%)
  Yes 141 (12.0) 16 (16.5) 0.040 135 (13.9) 16 (16.5) 0.777
  No 861 (73.2) 75 (77.3) 777 (80.1) 75 (77.3)
  Missing 175 (14.9) 6 (6.2) 58 (6.0) 6 (6.2)
 Hypertension, n(%)
  Yes 399 (33.9) 42 (43.3) 0.013 385 (39.7) 42 (43.3) 0.777
  No 615 (52.3) 51 (52.6) 541 (55.8) 51 (52.6)
  Missing 163 (13.8) 4 (4.1) 44 (4.5) 4 (4.1)
 Coronary Disease, n(%)
  Yes 80 (6.8) 9 (9.3) 0.035 75 (7.7) 9 (9.3) 0.865
  No 913 (77.6) 82 (84.5) 834 (86.0) 82 (84.5)
  Missing 184 (15.6) 6 (6.2) 61 (6.3) 6 (6.2)
 Stroke, n(%)
  Yes 24 (2.0) 4 (4.1) 0.014 23 (2.4) 4 (4.1) 0.480
  No 974 (82.8) 87 (89.7) 889 (91.6) 87 (89.7)
  Missing 179 (15.2) 6 (6.2) 58 (6.0) 6 (6.2)
 Heart Failure, n(%)
  Yes 37 (3.1) 4 (4.1) 0.056 36 (3.7) 4 (4.1) 0.821
  No 958 (81.4) 86 (88.7) 874 (90.1) 86 (88.7)
  Missing 182 (15.5) 7 (7.2) 60 (6.2) 7 (7.2)
 Arrhythmia, n(%)
  Yes 41 (3.5) 4 (4.1) 0.044 39 (4.0) 4 (4.1) > 0.999
  No 953 (81.0) 87 (89.7) 870 (89.7) 87 (89.7)
  Missing 183 (15.5) 6 (6.2) 61 (6.3) 6 (6.2)
 Cancer, n(%)
  Yes 87 (7.4) 20 (20.6) < 0.001 80 (8.2) 20 (20.6) < 0.001
  No 914 (77.7) 72 (74.2) 833 (85.9) 72 (74.2)
  Missing 176 (15.0) 5 (5.2) 57 (5.9) 5 (5.2)
 Renal Failure, n(%)
  Yes 26 (2.2) 0 (0) 0.010 24 (2.5) 0 (0) 0.350
  No 969 (82.3) 91 (93.8) 884 (91.1) 91 (93.8)
  Missing 182 (15.5) 6 (6.2) 62 (6.4) 6 (6.2)
 Rheumatologic Disorder, n(%)
  Yes 23 (2.0) 4 (4.1) 0.020 22(2.3) 4(4.1) 0.426
  No 967 (82.2) 86 (88.7) 883 (91.0) 86 (88.7)
  Missing 187 (15.9) 7 (7.2) 65 (6.7) 7 (7.2)
 Obesity (BMI > 30), n(%)
  Yes 249 (21.2) 23 (23.7) 0.652 223 (23.0) 23 (23.7) 0.603
  No 262 (22.3) 18 (18.6) 223 (23.0) 18 (18.6)
  Missing 666 (56.6) 56 (57.7) 524 (54.0) 56 (57.7)
Presenting Symptoms, n (%)
 Fever, n(%)
  Yes 606 (51.5) 58 (59.8) 0.142 536 (55.3) 58 (59.8) 0.453
  No 571 (48.5) 39 (40.2) 434 (44.7) 39 (40.2)
 Cough, n(%)
  Yes 642 (54.5) 54 (55.7) 0.914 531 (54.7) 54 (55.7) 0.946
  No 535 (45.5) 43 (44.3) 439 (45.3) 43 (44.3)
 Shortness of Breath, n(%)
  Yes 392 (33.3) 35 (36.1) 0.656 345 (35.6) 35 (36.1) > 0.999
  No 785 (66.7) 62 (63.9) 625 (64.4) 62 (63.9)
 GI, n(%)
  Yes 172 (14.6) 12 (12.4) 0.650 141 (14.5) 12 (12.4) 0.669
  No 1005 (85.4) 85 (87.6) 829 (85.5) 85 (87.6)
 Altered Mental State, n(%)
  Yes 38 (3.2) 3 (3.1) > 0.999 36 (3.7) 3 (3.1) > 0.999
  No 1139 (96.8) 94 (96.9) 934 (96.3) 94 (96.9)
 Lack of taste or smell, n(%)
  Yes 65 (5.5) 6 (6.2) 0.965 56 (5.8) 6 (6.2) > 0.999
  No 1112 (94.5) 91 (93.8) 914 (94.2) 91 (93.8)
Disease severity, n(%)
 Oxygenation < 94
  Yes 135 (11.5) 11 (11.3) 0.620 125 (12.9) 11 (11.3) 0.396
  No 407 (34.6) 29 (29.9) 345 (35.6) 29 (29.9)
  Missing 635 (54.0) 57 (58.8) 500 (51.5) 57 (58.8)
 qSOFA Score
  0 416 (35.3) 31 (32.0) 0.575 343 (35.4) 31 (32.0) 0.577
   1 761 (64.7) 66 (68.0) 627 (64.6) 66 (68.0)
Initial laboratory test
 Ferritin (IQR) 719.35 (298.18,1347.53) 537.37 (316.05,1240,87) 0.22 719.35 (291.78,1347.18) 537.37 (316.05,1240,87) 0.216
 CRP (IQR) 7.79 (3.92,15.04) 16.64 (4.40,23.13) 0.340 9.51 (4.48,15.59) 16.64 (4.40,23.13) 0.241
 IL-6 (IQR) 14 (5,36) 10 (6,10) 0.361 15 (5,39) 10 (6,10) 0.360
 D-dimer (IQR) 0.98 (0.56,1.82) 0.93 (0.53,1.54) > 0.999 1.01 (0.55,1.86) 0.93 (0.53,1.54) > 0.999
 Neutrophil (IQR) 4.5 (3.2,7.3) 3.8 (2.6,6.1) 0.473 4.6 (3.3,7.4) 3.8 (2.6,6.1) 0.366
 Lymphocyte (IQR) 0.99 (0.68,1.40) 0.83 (0.7,1.1) 0.369 0.96 (0.66,1.40) 0.83 (0.7,1.1) 0.366
 Neutrophil / Lymphocyte
  < 4.85 188 (16.0) 19 (19.6) 0.505 161 (16.6) 19 (19.6)  
  ≥ 4.85 159 (13.5) 15 (15.5) 146 (15.1) 15 (15.5) 0.731
  Missing 830 (70.5) 63 (64.9) 663 (68.4) 63 (64.9)  
Time
 Follow-up time 38 (6,46) 42 (31,46) 0.091 38 (6,46) 42 (31,46) 0.070
 # of days prior to diagnosis 5 (3,7) 5 (2,8) 0.609 5 (3,7) 5 (2,8) 0.604
Outcomes, n(%)
 Hospitalization
  Yes 350 (29.7) 21 (21.6) 0.117 305 (31.4) 21 (21.6) 0.060
  No 827 (70.3) 76 (78.4) 665 (68.6) 76 (78.4)
 ICU admission
  Yes 46 (4.0) 3 (3.1) > 0.999 42 (4.3) 3 (3.1) 0.791
  No 1130 (96.0) 94 (96.9) 928 (95.7) 94 (96.9)
 Death
  Yes 47 (4) 2 (2.1) 0.578 44 (4.5) 2 (2.1) 0.427
  No 1129 (96) 95 (97.9) 926 (95.5) 95 (97.9)
AE, n(%)
 QT prolongationb
  Yes 3 (0.3) 2 (2.1) 0.049 3 (0.3) 2 (2.1) 0.068
  No 1174 (99.7) 95 (97.9) 967 (99.7) 95 (97.9)
 Arrhythmia eventc
  Yes 1 (0.1) 0 (0.01) > 0.999 1 (0.1) 0 (0) > 0.999
  No 1176 (99.9) 97 (100.0) 969 (99.9) 97 (100.0)
  1. (1) Comorbidity counta: Diabetes, COPD/Asthma, Hypertension, Coronary Disease, Cerebrovascular disease, Heart Failure, Arrhythmia, Cancer Renal failure, Rheumatologic, disorder, and Obesity
  2. (2) 10 Variables are used to do the matching: Age, gender, Cancer, Hypertension, COPD/Asthma, Diabetes, Fever, Cough, Shortness of Breath, SOFA Score
  3. (3) If the variable tested is continuous, then a Mood’s median test is performed to compare medians of samples
  4. If the variable tested is categorical, then a Pearson’s Chi-squared test or Fisher’s Exact test is performed
  5. bQT prolongation that led to discontinuation of hydroxychloroquine. Those who did not receive outpatient hydroxychloroquine may have been exposed to hydroxychloroquine if hospitalized, and thus patients in the non-exposure group may have this adverse event reported
  6. cArrhythmia event recorded after COVID-19 diagnosis