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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and outcomes

From: Hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of outpatients with mildly symptomatic COVID-19: a multi-center observational study

Characteristics

Unmatched Patients (N = 1274)

Propensity-score-Matched Patients (N = 1067)

No HCQ (n = 1177)

HCQ (n = 97)

P-value

No HCQ (n = 970)

HCQ (n = 97)

P-value

Age – median (IQR)

54 (40,64)

57 (44,65)

0.092

54 (40,65)

57 (44,65)

0.055

Gender, n(%)

 Female

583 (49.5)

56 (57.7)

0.148

531 (54.7)

56 (57.7)

0.647

 Male

594 (50.5)

41 (42.3)

439 (45.3)

41 (42.3)

Race/Ethnicity, n(%)

 African American

89 (7.6)

6 (6.2)

0.302

80 (8.2)

6 (6.2)

0.238

 Asian

41 (3.5)

1 (1.0)

38 (3.9)

1 (1.0)

 Caucasian

602 (51.1)

57 (58.8)

497 (51.2)

57 (58.8)

 Hispanic

183 (15.5)

15 (15.5)

160 (16.5)

15 (15.5)

 Other

145 (12.3)

6 (6.2)

111 (11.4)

6 (6.2)

 Missing

117 (9.9)

12 (12.4)

84 (8.7)

12 (12.4)

Nursing Home/Rehab resident, n(%)

 Yes

98 (8.3)

10 (10.3)

0.715

92 (9.5)

10 (10.3)

0.888

 No

989 (84.0)

81 (83.5)

827 (85.3)

81 (83.5)

 Missing

90 (7.6)

6 (6.2)

51 (5.3)

6 (6.2)

Academic vs Community

 Community

935 (79.4)

77 (79.4)

> 0.999

768 (79.2)

77 (79.4)

> 0.999

 Academic

242 (20.6)

20 (20.6)

202 (20.8)

20 (20.6)

Former or Current Smoker

 Yes

246 (20.9)

24 (24.7)

0.223

206 (21.2)

24 (24.7)

0.672

 No

779 (66.2)

66 (68.0)

679 (70.0)

66 (68.0)

 Missing

152 (12.9)

7 (7.2)

85 (8.8)

7 (7.2)

Comorbidities, n(%)

 Comorbidity Counta

  0

524 (44.5)

27 (27.8)

0.005

364 (37.5)

27 (27.8)

0.157

  1

291 (24.7)

25 (25.8)

258 (26.6)

25 (25.8)

  2

197 (16.7)

23 (23.7)

191 (19.7)

23 (23.7)

   3

165 (14.0)

22 (22.7)

157 (16.2)

22 (22.7)

 Diabetes, n(%)

  Yes

178 (15.1)

17 (17.5)

0.077

167 (17.2)

17 (17.5)

0.951

  No

830 (70.5)

74 (76.3)

750 (77.3)

74 (76.3)

  Missing

169 (14.4)

6 (6.2)

53 (5.5)

6 (6.2)

 COPD/asthma, n(%)

  Yes

141 (12.0)

16 (16.5)

0.040

135 (13.9)

16 (16.5)

0.777

  No

861 (73.2)

75 (77.3)

777 (80.1)

75 (77.3)

  Missing

175 (14.9)

6 (6.2)

58 (6.0)

6 (6.2)

 Hypertension, n(%)

  Yes

399 (33.9)

42 (43.3)

0.013

385 (39.7)

42 (43.3)

0.777

  No

615 (52.3)

51 (52.6)

541 (55.8)

51 (52.6)

  Missing

163 (13.8)

4 (4.1)

44 (4.5)

4 (4.1)

 Coronary Disease, n(%)

  Yes

80 (6.8)

9 (9.3)

0.035

75 (7.7)

9 (9.3)

0.865

  No

913 (77.6)

82 (84.5)

834 (86.0)

82 (84.5)

  Missing

184 (15.6)

6 (6.2)

61 (6.3)

6 (6.2)

 Stroke, n(%)

  Yes

24 (2.0)

4 (4.1)

0.014

23 (2.4)

4 (4.1)

0.480

  No

974 (82.8)

87 (89.7)

889 (91.6)

87 (89.7)

  Missing

179 (15.2)

6 (6.2)

58 (6.0)

6 (6.2)

 Heart Failure, n(%)

  Yes

37 (3.1)

4 (4.1)

0.056

36 (3.7)

4 (4.1)

0.821

  No

958 (81.4)

86 (88.7)

874 (90.1)

86 (88.7)

  Missing

182 (15.5)

7 (7.2)

60 (6.2)

7 (7.2)

 Arrhythmia, n(%)

  Yes

41 (3.5)

4 (4.1)

0.044

39 (4.0)

4 (4.1)

> 0.999

  No

953 (81.0)

87 (89.7)

870 (89.7)

87 (89.7)

  Missing

183 (15.5)

6 (6.2)

61 (6.3)

6 (6.2)

 Cancer, n(%)

  Yes

87 (7.4)

20 (20.6)

< 0.001

80 (8.2)

20 (20.6)

< 0.001

  No

914 (77.7)

72 (74.2)

833 (85.9)

72 (74.2)

  Missing

176 (15.0)

5 (5.2)

57 (5.9)

5 (5.2)

 Renal Failure, n(%)

  Yes

26 (2.2)

0 (0)

0.010

24 (2.5)

0 (0)

0.350

  No

969 (82.3)

91 (93.8)

884 (91.1)

91 (93.8)

  Missing

182 (15.5)

6 (6.2)

62 (6.4)

6 (6.2)

 Rheumatologic Disorder, n(%)

  Yes

23 (2.0)

4 (4.1)

0.020

22(2.3)

4(4.1)

0.426

  No

967 (82.2)

86 (88.7)

883 (91.0)

86 (88.7)

  Missing

187 (15.9)

7 (7.2)

65 (6.7)

7 (7.2)

 Obesity (BMI > 30), n(%)

  Yes

249 (21.2)

23 (23.7)

0.652

223 (23.0)

23 (23.7)

0.603

  No

262 (22.3)

18 (18.6)

223 (23.0)

18 (18.6)

  Missing

666 (56.6)

56 (57.7)

524 (54.0)

56 (57.7)

Presenting Symptoms, n (%)

 Fever, n(%)

  Yes

606 (51.5)

58 (59.8)

0.142

536 (55.3)

58 (59.8)

0.453

  No

571 (48.5)

39 (40.2)

434 (44.7)

39 (40.2)

 Cough, n(%)

  Yes

642 (54.5)

54 (55.7)

0.914

531 (54.7)

54 (55.7)

0.946

  No

535 (45.5)

43 (44.3)

439 (45.3)

43 (44.3)

 Shortness of Breath, n(%)

  Yes

392 (33.3)

35 (36.1)

0.656

345 (35.6)

35 (36.1)

> 0.999

  No

785 (66.7)

62 (63.9)

625 (64.4)

62 (63.9)

 GI, n(%)

  Yes

172 (14.6)

12 (12.4)

0.650

141 (14.5)

12 (12.4)

0.669

  No

1005 (85.4)

85 (87.6)

829 (85.5)

85 (87.6)

 Altered Mental State, n(%)

  Yes

38 (3.2)

3 (3.1)

> 0.999

36 (3.7)

3 (3.1)

> 0.999

  No

1139 (96.8)

94 (96.9)

934 (96.3)

94 (96.9)

 Lack of taste or smell, n(%)

  Yes

65 (5.5)

6 (6.2)

0.965

56 (5.8)

6 (6.2)

> 0.999

  No

1112 (94.5)

91 (93.8)

914 (94.2)

91 (93.8)

Disease severity, n(%)

 Oxygenation < 94

  Yes

135 (11.5)

11 (11.3)

0.620

125 (12.9)

11 (11.3)

0.396

  No

407 (34.6)

29 (29.9)

345 (35.6)

29 (29.9)

  Missing

635 (54.0)

57 (58.8)

500 (51.5)

57 (58.8)

 qSOFA Score

  0

416 (35.3)

31 (32.0)

0.575

343 (35.4)

31 (32.0)

0.577

   1

761 (64.7)

66 (68.0)

627 (64.6)

66 (68.0)

Initial laboratory test

 Ferritin (IQR)

719.35 (298.18,1347.53)

537.37 (316.05,1240,87)

0.22

719.35 (291.78,1347.18)

537.37 (316.05,1240,87)

0.216

 CRP (IQR)

7.79 (3.92,15.04)

16.64 (4.40,23.13)

0.340

9.51 (4.48,15.59)

16.64 (4.40,23.13)

0.241

 IL-6 (IQR)

14 (5,36)

10 (6,10)

0.361

15 (5,39)

10 (6,10)

0.360

 D-dimer (IQR)

0.98 (0.56,1.82)

0.93 (0.53,1.54)

> 0.999

1.01 (0.55,1.86)

0.93 (0.53,1.54)

> 0.999

 Neutrophil (IQR)

4.5 (3.2,7.3)

3.8 (2.6,6.1)

0.473

4.6 (3.3,7.4)

3.8 (2.6,6.1)

0.366

 Lymphocyte (IQR)

0.99 (0.68,1.40)

0.83 (0.7,1.1)

0.369

0.96 (0.66,1.40)

0.83 (0.7,1.1)

0.366

 Neutrophil / Lymphocyte

  < 4.85

188 (16.0)

19 (19.6)

0.505

161 (16.6)

19 (19.6)

 

  ≥ 4.85

159 (13.5)

15 (15.5)

146 (15.1)

15 (15.5)

0.731

  Missing

830 (70.5)

63 (64.9)

663 (68.4)

63 (64.9)

 

Time

 Follow-up time

38 (6,46)

42 (31,46)

0.091

38 (6,46)

42 (31,46)

0.070

 # of days prior to diagnosis

5 (3,7)

5 (2,8)

0.609

5 (3,7)

5 (2,8)

0.604

Outcomes, n(%)

 Hospitalization

  Yes

350 (29.7)

21 (21.6)

0.117

305 (31.4)

21 (21.6)

0.060

  No

827 (70.3)

76 (78.4)

665 (68.6)

76 (78.4)

 ICU admission

  Yes

46 (4.0)

3 (3.1)

> 0.999

42 (4.3)

3 (3.1)

0.791

  No

1130 (96.0)

94 (96.9)

928 (95.7)

94 (96.9)

 Death

  Yes

47 (4)

2 (2.1)

0.578

44 (4.5)

2 (2.1)

0.427

  No

1129 (96)

95 (97.9)

926 (95.5)

95 (97.9)

AE, n(%)

 QT prolongationb

  Yes

3 (0.3)

2 (2.1)

0.049

3 (0.3)

2 (2.1)

0.068

  No

1174 (99.7)

95 (97.9)

967 (99.7)

95 (97.9)

 Arrhythmia eventc

  Yes

1 (0.1)

0 (0.01)

> 0.999

1 (0.1)

0 (0)

> 0.999

  No

1176 (99.9)

97 (100.0)

969 (99.9)

97 (100.0)

  1. (1) Comorbidity counta: Diabetes, COPD/Asthma, Hypertension, Coronary Disease, Cerebrovascular disease, Heart Failure, Arrhythmia, Cancer Renal failure, Rheumatologic, disorder, and Obesity
  2. (2) 10 Variables are used to do the matching: Age, gender, Cancer, Hypertension, COPD/Asthma, Diabetes, Fever, Cough, Shortness of Breath, SOFA Score
  3. (3) If the variable tested is continuous, then a Mood’s median test is performed to compare medians of samples
  4. If the variable tested is categorical, then a Pearson’s Chi-squared test or Fisher’s Exact test is performed
  5. bQT prolongation that led to discontinuation of hydroxychloroquine. Those who did not receive outpatient hydroxychloroquine may have been exposed to hydroxychloroquine if hospitalized, and thus patients in the non-exposure group may have this adverse event reported
  6. cArrhythmia event recorded after COVID-19 diagnosis