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Table 3 Antimicrobial resistance in selected pathogens causing surgical site infections (SSIs) in 4 MNGHA hospitals in Saudi Arabia (2007–2016)

From: High contribution and impact of resistant gram negative pathogens causing surgical site infections at a multi-hospital healthcare system in Saudi Arabia, 2007–2016

 CSEC
(N = 137)
COLO
(N = 27)
CBGB
(N = 155)
CHOL
(N = 19)
HER
(N = 18)
KPRO
(N = 18)
Others
(N = 36)
Total
(N = 410)
Tested pathogens
Staphylococcus aureus60 (89.6%)1 (100.0%)26 (92.9%)3 (100.0%)3 (60.0%)5 (71.4%)1 (100.0%)99 (88.4%)
Enterococcus spp.9 (90.0%)2 (40.0%)7 (87.5%)1 (50.0%)3 (100.0%) 1 (100.0%)23 (79.3%)
Klebsiella spp. (cephalosporins)15 (100.0%)4 (100.0%)24 (82.8%)3 (75.0%)2 (100.0%)1 (100.0%)3 (60.0%)52 (86.7%)
Enterobacteriaceae35 (92.1%)7 (63.6%)37 (60.7%)8 (80.0%)4 (80.0%)3 (100.0%)16 (80.0%)110 (74.3%)
Acinetobacter spp.1 (100.0%)1 (100.0%)4 (100.0%)1 (100.0%) 1 (100.0%)4 (100.0%)12 (100.0%)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa18 (94.7%)6 (100.0%)51 (98.1%)2 (100.0%)5 (100.0%)6 (85.7%)8 (100.0%)96 (97.0%)
Klebsiella spp. (at least 3 classes)10 (66.7%)4 (100.0%)24 (82.8%)4 (100.0%)2 (100.0%)1 (100.0%)4 (80.0%)49 (81.7%)
Escherichia coli12 (70.6%)7 (87.5%)15 (93.8%)5 (100.0%)1 (50.0%)1 (50.0%)8 (80.0%)49 (81.7%)
Resistance types
 MRSA20 (33.3%)1 (100.0%)6 (23.1%)1 (33.3%)0 (0.0%)2 (40.0%)0 (0.0%)30 (30.3%)
 VRE0 (0.0%)1 (50.0%)1 (14.3%)1 (100.0%)0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%)3 (13.0%)
 CephR Klebsiella1 (6.7%)1 (25.0%)4 (16.7%)2 (66.7%)2 (100.0%)1 (100.0%)2 (66.7%)13 (25.0%)
 CRE1 (2.9%)2 (28.6%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)1 (33.3%)2 (12.5%)6 (5.5%)
 MDR Acinetobacter0 (0.0%)1 (100.0%)2 (50.0%)1 (100.0%) 1 (100.0%)2 (50.0%)7 (58.3%)
 MDR Pseudomonas0 (0.0%)1 (16.7%)4 (7.8%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)1 (16.7%)1 (12.5%)7 (7.3%)
 MDR Klebsiella0 (0.0%)1 (25.0%)3 (12.5%)1 (25.0%)2 (100.0%)1 (100.0%)2 (50.0%)10 (20.4%)
 MDR Escherichia coli2 (16.7%)2 (28.6%)0 (0.0%)2 (40.0%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)2 (25.0%)8 (16.3%)
  1. Abbreviations: As in Table 1. Tested pathogens referred to pathogens tested out of pathogens causing SSI; resistance was presented out of pathogens tested; MRSA Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, VRE Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, CephR Klebsiella Cephalosporin resistant Klebsiella, CRE Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae, MDR Multidrug resistant gram negative pathogens that tested non-susceptible (resistant or intermediate) to at least one agent in at least 3 out of 5 antimicrobial classes (see Methods)