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Table 2 Clinical, laboratory, imaging and hospitalization parameters associated with sepsis in patients with cellulitis

From: Factors associated with sepsis development in 606 Spanish adult patients with cellulitis

 All
n = 606
No sepsis
(n = 541)
Sepsis
(n = 65)
P value
Clinical and topographical aspects
 Days of symptoms4.11 (3.80–4.46)4.23 (3.88–4.61)3.27 (2.65–4.02)0.04
 Temperature (°C)37.02 (36.94–37.10)36.98 (36.91–37.06)37.32 (37.03–37.62)0.03
 Location of cellulitis
  Lower extremities453 (74.8%)403 (74.5%)50 (76.9%)0.9
  Upper extremities82 (13.5%)74 (13.7%)8 (12.3%) 
  Thorax/abdomen26 (4.3%)24 (4.4%)2 (3.1%) 
  Head/neck45 (7.4%)40 (7.4%)5 (7.7%) 
 Exclusive or preferential side
  Right264 (43.6%)235 (43.4%)29 (44.6%)0.5
  Left292 (48.2%)259 (47.9%)33 (50.8%) 
  Bilateral/centered50 (8.3%)47 (8.7%)3 (4.6%) 
  Maximum length of cellulitis (cm) b
  (n = 398)20.08 (18.76–21.50)19.48 (18.13–20.93)24.85 (20.14–30.67)0.02
 Crepitation
  Yes9 (1.5%)6 (1.1%)3 (4.6%)0.06
  No597 (98.5%)535 (98.9%)62 (95.4%) 
 Presence of purulent collection
  Yes164 (27.1%)142 (26.2%)22 (33.8%)0.19
  No / not detected442 (72.9%)399 (73.8%)43 (66.2%) 
 Detection of the collection
  By physical exam104 (63.4%)91 (64.1%)13 (59.1%)0.6
  Only by imaging60 (36.6%)51 (35.9%)9 (40.9%) 
Laboratory parameters
 Blood glucose (mg/dL)124.4 (120.9–128.0)123.3 (119.6–127.2)133.6 (123.5–144.5)0.09
 Blood creatinine (mg/dL)1.03 (1.00–1.07)1.01 (0.97–1.04)1.28 (1.11–1.47)0.001
 Leukocyte count (cells/μL)10,777 (10354–11,218)10,395 (9983–10,824)14,555 (12575–16,847)< 0.0001
 Neutrophil count (% of leukocytes)75.13 (73.95–76.34)74.18 (72.92–75.47)83.55 (81.31–85.86)< 0.0001
 ESR (mm/h)
  (n = 161)53.02 (47.64–59.01))52.84 (47.06–59.32)54.59 (41.05–72.59)0.8
 CRP (mg/L)
  (n = 581)23.60 (20.47–27.21)22.06 (18.99–25.63)41.04 (26.52–63.49)0.008
Imaging procedures
 Imaging
  Yes277 (45.7%)247 (45.7%)30 (46.2%)0.9
  No329 (54.3%)294 (54.3%)35 (53.8%) 
 Imaging a
  Only echography147 (53.1%)136 (55.1%)11 (36.7%)0.2
  Only CT50 (18.1%)44 (17.8%)6 (20.0%) 
  Only MRI18 (6.5%)15 (6.1%)3 (10.0%) 
  Others / combined62 (22.4%)52 (21.1%)10 (33.3%) 
 Imaging (single or combined) a
  Echography180 (65.0%)160 (64.8%)20 (66.7%)0.8
  Other than echo97 (35.0%)87 (35.2%)10 (33.3%) 
  CT77 (27.8%)65 (26.3%)12 (40.0%)0.11
  Other than CT200 (72.2%)182 (73.7%)18 (60.0%) 
  MRI37 (13.3%)30 (12.1%)7 (23.3%)0.9
  Other than MRI240 (86.6%)217 (87.9%)23 (76.7%) 
Hospitalization parameters & outcome
 Days of hospital stay7.02 (6.63–7.44)6.88 (6.49–7.30)8.30 (6.72–10.25)0.09
 Follow-up after discharge
  Primary care377 (63.7%)345 (64.6%)32 (55.2%)0.3
  Outpatient clinic202 (34.1%)177 (33.1%)25 (43.1%) 
  Others13 (2.2%)12 (2.2%)1 (1.7%) 
 Cellulitis outcome
  Good response520 (85.8%)469 (86.7%)51 (78.5%)0.07
  Poor response86 (14.2%)72 (13.3%)14 (21.5%) 
 Vital outcome
  Death18 (3.0%)11 (2.0%)7 (10.8%)0.001
  Survival588 (97.0%)530 (98.0%)58 (89.2%) 
 Death related to cellulitis
  Yes5 (27.8%)1 (9.1%)4 (57.1%)0.047
  No13 (72.2%)10 (90.9%)3 (42.9%) 
 Days from admission to death7.18 (4.14–12.45)9.05 (4.85–16.88)5.16 (1.54–17.23)0.3
  1. Values are expressed as mean (95% CI) or % as appropriate
  2. a Respect to patients who underwent imaging procedures