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Table 1 Baseline Characteristics and Risk Factors for Healthcare-Associated Infections

From: A 2-year point-prevalence surveillance of healthcare-associated infections and antimicrobial use in Ferrara University Hospital, Italy

   Unadjusted logistic regressionAdjusted logistic regression⁑
Patient CharacteristicsPatients without HAIPatientswith HAI 95%CI 95%CI 
 n = 987n = 115ORlowerupperORlowerupperp-value
Sex
 female, n (%)498 (50.5)57 (49.5)1.040.701.52    
Age, years
 median [IQR]71 [56 82]71 [57 82]1.010.991.01    
Age classes, n (%)
 15–64 years345 (35.0)39 (33.9)Ref      
 0–1 years29 (2.9)3 (2.6)0.920.273.14    
 2–14 years15 (1.5)0 (0.0)    
  > 64 years598 (60.6)73 (63.5)1.080.721.63    
McCabe Score, n (%)
 Non-fatal disease594 (61.0)30 (27.0)Ref      
 Ultimately fatal disease233 (24.0)35 (31.5)2.971.784.96    
 Rapidly fatal disease146 (15.0)46 (41.5)6.233.8010.222.631.594.360.001
Medical Devices, n (%)
 Presence of PVC674 (68.3)81 (71.7)1.180.761.812.801.574.990.001
 Presence of urinary catheter346 (35.2)73 (64.6)3.362.245.051.781.102.900.019
 Presence of CVC120 (12.2)52 (45.2)5.963.949.023.591.986.51< 0.001
 Presence of MV18 (1.8)17 (14.9)9.434.7118.904.131.6810.190.002
Surgery, n (%)
 None688 (69.9)75 (65.2)Ref      
 Non-NHSN148 (15.0)19 (16.5)1.180.692.01    
 NHSN149 (15.1)21 (18.3)1.290.772.16    
Time at risk*, days
 median [IQR]6 [2 13]15 [9 29]1.011.0031.011    
Time at risk, n (%)         
  > 6 days472 (47.8)103 (89.6)9.375.0817.249.384.8718.08< 0.001
Year of the survey, n (%)
 2016478 (48.4)52 (45.2)Ref      
 2018509 (51.6)63 (54.8)1.140.771.68    
  1. Abbreviations: HAI Healthcare-Associated Infection, IQR Interquartile Range, PVC Peripheral Vascular Catheter, CVC Central Venous Catheter, MV Mechanical Ventilation, NHSN National Health Safety Network, OR Odds Ratio, CI Confidence Interval, Ref Reference Category
  2. *Time elapsed from date of admission to date of survey
  3. ⁑Model log-likelihood = − 265.84; LR χ2 = 170.8, p < 0.001. Hosmer-Lemeshow χ2 = 6.81, p = 0.4486. Area under receiver operating characteristics curve (AROC) = 0.84. Values in bold are statistically significant (p < 0.05)