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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study participants by study arms

From: Comparison of practicability and effectiveness between unassisted HIV self-testing and directly assisted HIV self-testing in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: a randomized feasibility trial

Participant characteristics Directly assisted HIV self-testing
(N = 265)
Unassisted HIV self-testing
(N = 265)
Total
(N = 530)
p-valuea
Sex, n (%)     0.859
 Male 104 (39.2) 106 (40.0) 210 (39.6)  
 Female 161 (60.8) 159 (60.0) 320 (60.4)  
Age (years), mean (SD) 26.9 (6.7) 26.8 (6.7) 26.9 (6.7) 0.881
Age group, n (%)     0.861
 Younger 18 to 24 years 114 (43.0) 112 (42.3) 226 (42.6)  
 Older 25 to 49 years 151 (57.0) 153 (57.7) 304 (57.4)  
Marital status, n (%)     0.589
 Single 189 (71.3) 195 (73.6) 384 (72.5)  
 Married/partnered 73 (27.5) 65 (24.5) 138 (26.0)  
 Separated/divorced or widowed 3 (1.1) 5 (1.9) 8 (1.5)  
Occupation, n (%)     0.778
 Student 141 (53.2) 136 (51.3) 277 (52.3)  
 Employed 63 (23.8) 61 (23.0) 124 (23.4)  
 Unemployed 61 (23.0) 68 (25.7) 129 (24.3)  
Educational level, n (%)     0.176
 No formal education/ Primary school 37 (14.0) 53 (20.0) 90 (17.0)  
 College or technical school 101 (38.1) 96 (36.2) 197 (37.2)  
 University 127 (47.9) 116 (43.8) 243 (45.8)  
Religion, n (%)     0.355
 Catholic Christianity 68 (25.7) 52 (19.6) 120 (22.6)  
 Protestant or Pentecostal Christianity 77 (29.1) 80 (30.2) 157 (29.6)  
 Islam 33 (12.5) 32 (12.1) 65 (12.3)  
 Others 87 (32.8) 101 (38.1) 188 (35.5)  
Recruited participants with the token distributing, n (%) 88 (33.2) 98 (37.0) 186 (35.1) 0.363
HIV transmission risk factor in the past six months, n (%)
 Unprotected intercourse with one or more partners, or new sex partners 227 (85.7) 218 (82.3) 445 (84.0) 0.287
 Commercial sex activity 73 (27.5) 86 (32.5) 159 (30.0) 0.218
 Symptoms of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) 35 (13.2) 47 (17.7) 82 (15.5) 0.149
 Being in a known HIV discordant partnership 6 (2.3) 3 (1.1) 9 (1.7) 0.313
Previously tested for HIV, n (%)     0.728
 Never tested 135 (50.9) 131 (49.4) 266 (50.2)  
 Ever tested 130 (49.1) 134 (50.6) 264 (49.8)  
Previous knowledge about HIV self-testing, n (%)     0.584
 Yes 89 (33.6) 95 (35.8) 184 (34.7)  
 No 176 (66.4) 170 (64.2) 346 (65.3)  
  1. aStatistical comparisons were assessed by Pearson Chi-2 test or Student t test