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Table 1 Clinical features of 185 pediatric inpatients with culture-confirmed herpetic gingivostomatitis

From: Clinical features of gingivostomatitis due to primary infection of herpes simplex virus in children

Characteristics Total
No. (%)
Late Diagnosis
No. (%)
Early Diagnosis
No. (%)
Other Diagnosis
No. (%)
P-value
Case Number 185 74 65 46  
Gender      0.053
 Male 92 (49.7) 33 (44.6) 29 (44.6) 30 (65.2)  
 Female 93 (51.3) 41 (55.4) 36 (55.4) 16 (34.8)  
Age, mean + SD (years)b 3.85 ± 3.58 3.23 ± 3.01 3.52 ± 3.14 5.33 ± 4.57 0.005
 < 3 years 112 (60.5) 50 (67.6) 42 (64.6) 20 (43.5) 0.023
 > 5 years 46 (24.9) 14 (18.9) 17 (26.2) 15 (32.6) 0.231
Diagnosis at admission
 Herpangina/HFMD 60 (32.4) 41 (55.4) NA 19 (41.3) 0.241
 Acute tonsillitis/pharyngitis 43 (23.3) 21 (28.4) NA 22 (47.8) 0.03
 LRTIa 7 (3.8) 4 (5.4) NA 3 (6.5) > 0.9
 FWLS 3 (1.6) 3 (4.1) NA 0 0.284
 Others 7 (3.8) 5 (6.7) NA 2 (4.4) 0.706
Diagnosis at discharge
 Herpangina/HFMD 20 (10.8) NA NA 20 (43.5) NA
 Acute tonsillitis/pharyngitis 22 (11.9) NA NA 22 (47.8) NA
 LRTI 4 (2.2) NA NA 4 (8.7) NA
 Others 0 NA NA 0 NA
General symptoms
 Fever 184 (99.5) 74 (100) 64 (98.5) 46 (100) 0.395
  Fever> 39°c 133 (77.3) 53 (79.1) 44 (74.6) 36 (78.3) 0.819
  Before admission (days)b 3.72 ± 2.03 3.45 ± 2.01 4.28 ± 2.25 3.34 ± 1.55 0.034
 Duration, mean + SD (days) [Range]b 5.11 ± 2.24 [1–17] 5.26 ± 2.11 [2–14] 5.43 ± 2.61 [0–17] 4.41 ± 1.72 [1–8] 0.047
 > 7 days 39 (21.1) 16 (21.6) 16 (24.6) 7 (15.2) 0.484
 Decreased appetite 176 (95.1) 72 (97.3) 63 (96.9) 41 (89.1) 0.092
 Decreased activity 131 (70.8) 55 (74.3) 42 (64.6) 34 (73.9) 0.394
 Dehydration 155 (84.7) 59 (80.8) 57 (89.1) 39 (84.8) 0.409
  Mild 142 (91.6) 56 (94.9) 54 (94.7) 32 (82.1) 0.045
  Moderate 13 (8.4) 3 (5.1) 3 (5.3) 7 (17.9) 0.045
Respiratory symptoms
 Cough 71 (38.4) 28 (37.8) 20 (30.8) 23 (50) 0.121
 Rhinorrhea 65 (35.1) 30 (40.5) 20 (30.8) 15 (32.6) 0.445
 Nasal congestion 16 (8.6) 7 (9.5) 4 (6.2) 5 (10.9) 0.650
 Conjunctivitis 4 (2.2) 2 (2.7) 1 (1.5) 1 (2.2) 0.892
Extra-pulmonary symptoms
 Vomiting 36 (19.5) 12 (16.2) 10 (15.4) 14 (30.4) 0.094
 Diarrhea 22 (11.9) 11 (14.9) 8 (12.3) 3 (6.5) 0.387
 Abdominal pain 14 (7.6) 10 (13.5) 1 (1.6) 3 (6.5) 0.027
 Skin rash 16 (8.6) 11 (14.9) 2 (3.1) 3 (6.5) 0.036
  Trunk 10 (62.5) 5 (45.5) 2 (100) 3 (100) 0.049
  Extremities 10 (62.5) 7 (63.6) 1 (50) 3 (100) 0.262
  Face 7 (43.8) 5 (45.5) 1 (50) 1 (33.3) 0.914
  Whitlow 1 (6.3) 1 (9.1) 0 0 0.677
Complications 4 (2.2) 2 (1.4) 2 (4.7) 0 0.159
 CNS 4 2 2 0 0.329
 PICU admission 4 2 2 0 0.159
 Mortality 0 0 0 0 NA
Antibiotics treatment (> 3 days) 41 (22.2) 14 (18.9) 7 (10.7) 20 (43.4) < 0.001
Acyclovir treatment 93 (50.3) 50 (67.6) 42 (64.6) 1 (2.2) < 0.001
LOS (days)b 4.54 ± 1.92 4.97 ± 1.81 4.26 ± 2.15 4.22 ± 1.62 0.039
  1. Abbreviations: HFMD Hand-foot-mouth disease, FWLS Fever without localizing sign, CNS Central nervous system, PICU Pediatric intensive care unit, LOS Length of hospital stay
  2. aLRTI Lower respiratory tract infection, including pneumonia, bronchopneumonia and acute bronchiolitis
  3. bthe number presented in these items did not represent No. (%)