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Table 1 Summary characteristics of patients with isolated orbital Mucormycosis

From: Orbital mucormycosis in immunocompetent children; review of risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment approach

  Yeara Age Sex The onset
of symptoms PTA
Clinical features Ophthal. exam Concurrent sinusitis Diagnostic approach 1 Predisposing factors Treatment strategy Treatment duration Surgical debridement Follow-up and outcome
Our case series
1 2017 7/M F 6/W Dacryocystitis + Periorbital cellulitis Left conjunctival injection and firm fixed mass on the inferomedial aspect of the left canthus Yes Pathology, fungal culture, KOH, molecular confirmation Gardening DAmB (1.5 mg/kg/day)/ LAmB (5 mg/kg/day) 8/W Orbitotomy+ debulking (three times) 3/Y, Complete cure
2 2017 9/M F 1/W Dacryocystitis
+ Periorbital cellulitis
Peri-orbital edema, and erythema extended to the superior side of the right medial canthus Yes Pathology, fungal culture, KOH, molecular confirmation Trauma (nasolacrimal duct probing) DAmB (1.5 mg/kg/day)/ LAmB (5 mg/kg/day) 9/W Orbitotomy+ debulking (two times) 3/Y, Complete cure
3 2018 18/M M 4/W Orbital cellulitis Right eye proptosis, purulent discharge, and peri-orbital swelling and redness Yes Pathology, fungal culture, KOH, molecular confirmation Not identified LAmB (5 mg/kg/day)/ PSC 2 (200 mg/q 6 h) 17/W Orbitotomy+ debulking (five times) 2/Y, Complete cure
4 2019 10/M M 1/W Periorbital cellulitis Right peri-orbital erythema and swelling No Pathology, fungal culture, KOH, molecular confirmation Not identified DAmB (1.5 mg/kg/day)/ LAmB (5 mg/kg/day)/PSC (200 mg/q 6 h) 12/W Orbitotomy+ debulking 9/M, Complete cure
5 2019 3/Y M 6/W Periorbital cellulitis Left sub-orbital swelling No Pathology, fungal culture, KOH, molecular confirmation Frequent exposure to corn and fodder storage and hay DAmB (1.5 mg/kg/day)/ LAmB (5 mg/kg/day)/ PSC (200 mg/q 6 h) 12/W Orbitotomy+ debulking (four times) 5/M, Complete cure
Previous case reports
6 2012 [8] 2/Y M 18/days Periorbital cellulitis NA Pathology, fungal culture, KOH Not reported DAmB, ICZ 6/M Anterior orbitotomy and debulking 2/Y, Complete cure
7 1951 [9] 10/Y M NA Exudative retinitis NA Pathology Coat’s disease NA NA Enucleation NA
8 2009 [10] 71 M 1/day Orbital cellulitis NA Pathology Diabetes mellitus, non-Hodgkin lymphoma of diffuse large B-cell (DLCBL) LAmB, PSC About 40/days Extensive surgical debridement Death
9 2014 [11] 13 M 3/W Periorbital cellulitis NA Pathology Gardening, immunocompetent, concurrent corticosteroid therapy for approximately 1/M DAmB 26/days Orbital exenteration Cure with morbidity
  1. Abbreviations: M male, F female, PTA prior to admission, Ophthal. exam ophthalmic examination, DAmB deoxycholate amphotericin B, LAmB liposomal amphotericin B, PSC posaconazole, ICZ Itraconazole;
  2. aPresentation year [reference]
  3. 1Including standard diagnostic tests (presence of fungal broad, non-septate hyphae in pathologic examination or growth of Mucormycosis on sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) and indirect mycologic test (fungal PCR) in tissue biopsy
  4. 2Noxafil 40 mg/ml oral suspension; Manufacture by MSD company