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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of Fluticasone/salmeterol and budesonide/formoterol cohort before and after matching

From: Risk of active tuberculosis among COPD patients treated with fixed combinations of long-acting beta2 agonists and inhaled corticosteroids

Variables Before PS matching After PS matching
Fluticasone/salmeterol cohort (n = 11,515) Budesonide/formoterol cohort (n = 7436) p value Fluticasone/salmeterol cohort (n = 7284) Budesonide/formoterol cohort (n = 7284) p value
n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
Index year      <.0001      0.7872
2004 1963 (17.04) 1430 (19.23)   1434 (19.69) 1407 (19.32)  
2005 1261 (10.95) 1230 (16.54)   1118 (15.35) 1138 (15.62)  
2006 1326 (11.51) 990 (13.31)   976 (13.4) 970 (13.32)  
2007 1485 (12.89) 973 (13.08)   1002 (13.76) 967 (13.28)  
2008 1375 (11.94) 843 (11.34)   835 (11.46) 833 (11.44)  
2009 1542 (13.39) 762 (10.25)   749 (10.28) 761 (10.45)  
2010 1570 (13.63) 815 (10.96)   822 (11.29) 815 (11.19)  
2011 993 (8.62) 393 (5.28)   348 (4.78) 393 (5.40)  
Age (year) 65.95 ± 10.26 63.29 ± 10.40 <.0001 63.77 ± 10.35 63.53 ± 10.31 0.1535
Male Gender 8798 (76.38) 5433 (73.05) <.0001 5403 (74.18) 5348 (73.42) 0.3001
Monthly income      0.0007      0.9766
< 19,100 4037 (35.05) 2481 (33.36)   2443 (33.54) 2451 (33.65)  
19,100-41,999 6011 (52.19) 3874 (52.09)   3812 (52.33) 3799 (52.16)  
42,000 1467 (12.74) 1081 (14.54)   1029 (14.13) 1034 (14.20)  
Hospital level      <.0001      0.9562
Level 1 4649 (40.36) 3076 (41.36)   2970 (40.77) 3001 (41.20)  
Level 2 4886 (42.42) 2907 (39.09)   2893 (39.72) 2877 (39.50)  
Level 3 1476 (12.81) 1016 (13.66)   997 (13.69) 991 (13.61)  
Level 4 (rural area) 504 (4.38) 437 (5.88)   424 (5.82) 415 (5.70)  
COPD medications           
Oral steroids 4544 (39.45) 2691 (36.18) <.0001 2683 (36.83) 2660 (36.52) 0.6925
Antibiotics 8142 (70.69) 5344 (71.86) 0.0855 5202 (71.42) 5227 (71.76) 0.6460
LABA 412 (3.58) 366 (4.92) <.0001 336 (4.61) 347 (4.76) 0.6664
SABA 3400 (29.52) 2514 (33.80) <.0001 2419 (33.21) 2434 (33.42) 0.7920
LAMA 1488 (12.92) 711 (9.56) <.0001 701 (9.62) 711 (9.76) 0.7794
Theophylline 8144 (70.71) 5378 (72.31) 0.0175 5248 (72.05) 5257 (72.17) 0.8679
Aminophylline 4884 (42.40) 3211 (43.18) 0.2969 3145 (43.18) 3142 (43.14) 0.9600
ICS 3155 (27.39) 2591 (34.84) <.0001 2465 (33.84) 2478 (34.02) 0.8200
Severe AE      <.0001      0.9873
0 6339 (55.04) 4579 (61.57)   4459 (61.22) 4451 (61.11)  
1 1914 (16.62) 1102 (14.82)   1090 (14.96) 1090 (14.96)  
2+ 3262 (28.32) 1755 (23.60)   1735 (23.82) 1743 (23.93)  
Baseline Comorbidities
 Charlson Score 1.64 ± 1.00 1.55 ± 0.90 <.0001 1.55 ± 0.91 1.55 ± 0.90 0.7699
 Myocardial infarction 190 (1.65) 95 (1.28) 0.0397 97 (1.33) 95 (1.30) 0.8845
 Congestive heart failure 1030 (8.94) 584 (7.85) 0.0086 566 (7.77) 579 (7.95) 0.6890
 Peripheral vascular disease 92 (0.80) 52 (0.70) 0.4405 52 (0.71) 51 (0.70) 0.9212
 Cerebrovascular disease 578 (5.02) 279 (3.75) <.0001 277 (3.80) 277 (3.80) 1.0000
 Dementia 193 (1.68) 67 (0.90) <.0001 66 (0.91) 67 (0.92) 0.9306
 Rheumatologic disease 114 (0.99) 74 (1.00) 0.9722 67 (0.92) 71 (0.97) 0.7323
 Peptic ulcer disease 1702 (14.78) 1052 (14.15) 0.2271 1032 (14.17) 1030 (14.14) 0.9621
 Hemiplegia or
paraplegia
7 (0.06) 2 (0.03) 0.2957 3 (0.04) 2 (0.03) 0.6547
 Renal disease 270 (2.34) 153 (2.06) 0.1913 149 (2.05) 146 (2.00) 0.8599
 Diabetes 1253 (10.88) 706 (9.49) 0.0022 690 (9.47) 703 (9.65) 0.7142
 Moderate or severe
liver disease
374 (3.25) 239 (3.21) 0.8977 229 (3.14) 235 (3.23) 0.7771
 Tumor 372 (3.23) 202 (2.72) 0.0438 201 (2.76) 199 (2.73) 0.9192
 Autoimmune 660 (5.73) 442 (5.94) 0.5418 445 (6.11) 428 (5.88) 0.5529