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Table 1 Characteristics of analyzed individuals with laboratory-positive non-severe and severe COVID-19, Mexico 2020

From: Male gender and kidney illness are associated with an increased risk of severe laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease

  Overall Non-severe Severe p
n = 740 n = 533 n = 207
Sex
 Female 316 (42.7) 257 (48.2) 59 (28.5) <  0.001
 Male 424 (57.3) 276 (51.8) 148 (71.5)  
Age (years) a 43.7 ± 14.9 40.0 ± 13.0 53.1 ± 15.4 <  0.001
Age group (years)
 15–29 141 (19.1) 126 (23.6) 15 (7.2) <  0.001
 30–44 281 (38.0) 240 (45.1) 41 (19.8)  
 45–59 210 (28.3) 122 (22.9) 88 (42.6)  
  ≥ 60 108 (14.6) 45 (8.4) 63 (30.4)  
Received NAIs (any)
 No 734 (99.2) 529 (99.2) 205 (99.0) 0.769
 Yes 6 (0.8) 4 (0.8) 2 (1.0)  
Received antyperitc drugs (any)
 No 326 (44.1) 227 (42.6) 99 (47.8) 0.198
 Yes 414 (55.9) 306 (57.4) 108 (52.2)  
Antipyretic drug received b
Acetaminophen 372 (89.9) 291 (95.1) 81 (75.0) <  0.001
 Metamizole 11 (2.7) 5 (1.6) 6 (5.6)  
 Ibuprofen 10 (2.3) 4 (1.3) 6 (5.6)  
 Other 21 (5.1) 6 (2.0) 15 (13.8)  
Received influenza vaccine c
 No 622 (84.1) 440 (82.6) 182 (87.9) 0.073
 Yes 118 (15.9) 93 (17.4) 25 (12.1)  
Elapsed days from symptoms onset to health-care seeking
  < 1 347 (46.9) 253 (47.5) 94 (45.4) <  0.001
 1–3 182 (24.6) 148 (27.7) 34 (16.4)  
 4 or above 211 (28.5= 132 (24.8) 79 (38.2)  
Hospital admission
 No 470 (63.5) 470 (88.2) 0 (0) <  0.001
 Yes 270 (36.5) 63 (11.8) 207 (100)  
Acute symptoms profile
Cough (yes) 657 (88.8) 466 (87.4) 191 (92.3) 0.061
Fever (yes) 641 (86.6) 451 (84.6) 190 (91.8) 0.010
Headache (yes) 632 (85.4) 464 (87.1) 168 (81.2) 0.041
Myalgia/Arthralgia (yes) 572 (77.3) 423 (79.4) 149 (72.0) 0.031
Odynophagia (yes) 407 (55.0) 310 (58.2) 97 (46.9) 0.006
Chills (yes) 403 (54.5) 287 (53.8) 116 (56.0) 0.591
Rhinorrhea (yes) 353 (47.7) 276 (51.8) 77 (37.2) <  0.001
Thoracic pain (yes) 282 (38.1) 171 (32.1) 111 (53.6) <  0.001
Diarrhea (yes) 137 (18.5) 104 (19.5) 33 (15.9) 0.262
Polypnea (yes) 27 (3.6) 5 (0.9) 22 (10.6) <  0.001
Personal history of
Tobacco use (current, yes) 80 (10.8) 47 (8.9) 32 (15.6) 0.009
Obesity (BMI 30 or higher) (yes) 162 (21.9) 100 (18.8) 61 (29.7) 0.001
Arterial hypertension (yes) 148 (20.0) 74 (13.9) 74 (35.6) <  0.001
Cardiovascular disease (yes) 20 (2.7) 8 (1.5) 12 (5.9) 0.001
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (yes) 108 (14.6) 51 (9.5) 58 (27.8) <  0.001
Asthma (yes) 33 (4.4) 22 (4.2) 10 (4.9) 0.676
COPD (yes) 27 (3.7) 9 (1.7) 18 (8.8) <  0.001
Chronic kidney disease (yes) 13 (1.8) 3 (0.6) 10 (4.9) <  0.001
Immunosuppression (yes) 19 (2.5) 8 (1.5) 10 (4.9) <  0.001
HIV infection (yes) 5 (0.7) 3 (0.6) 2 (1.0) 0.549
  1. Abbreviations: COVID-19 Coronavirus disease 2019, NAIs Neuraminidase inhibitors, COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, HIV Human immunodeficiency virus
  2. Notes: 1) SuperScript™ III Platinum™ One-Step qRT-PCR Kits were used to confirm the COVID-19; 2) The absolute and relative (%) frequencies are presented, unless otherwise specified. 2) p-value from chi-square o t-tests as corresponding
  3. a The arithmetic mean ± standard deviation is presented
  4. b Among 414 subjects (non-severe disease, n = 306; severe disease, n = 108) in whom the use of antipyretic drugs was documented before healthcare seeking
  5. c During the same influenza season than acute COVID-19 onset