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Table 2 Comparison of characteristics between bacteriologically positive and negative patients who underwent all sputum smear, culture and Xpert in Tianjin, China, 2017–2018

From: Comparison of different bacteriological testing strategies and factors for bacteriological confirmation among pulmonary TB patients: a retrospective study in Tianjin, China, 2017–2018

Characteristics (n) Negativity (%) Positivity (%) Total P by χ2
Gender (2484)
 Male 434 (65.8) 1265 (69.4) 1699 0.09
 Female 226 (34.2) 559 (30.6) 785
Age (2484)
  < 25 yr a 162 (24.5) 283 (15.5) 445 < 0.01
 25–44 241 (36.5) 513 (28.1) 754
 45–64 173 (26.2) 608 (33.3) 781
  ≥ 65 yr 84 (12.7) 420 (23.0) 504
Ethnic group (2484)
 Han 649 (98.3) 1788 (98.0) 2437 0.62
 Other 11 (1.7) 36 (2.0) 47
Migrant (2484)
 No 535 (81.1) 1641 (90.0) 2176 < 0.01
 Yes 125 (18.9) 183 (10.0) 308
Occupation (2484)
 Student 99 (15.0) 148 (8.1) 247 < 0.01
 Unemployed 107 (16.2) 512 (28.1) 619
 Farmer 68 (10.3) 218 (12.0) 286
 Service/manufacture worker b 75 (11.4) 126 (6.9) 201
 State employee 179 (27.1) 355 (19.5) 534
 Retiree 90 (13.6) 314 (17.2) 404
 Not provided/unclear 42 (6.4) 151 (8.3) 193
Hospital pattern of diagnosis (2484)
 City-level TB clinic 237 (35.9) 255 (14.0) 492 < 0.01
 City-level TB hospital c 286 (43.3) 1337 (73.3) 1623
 District-level TB clinics 137 (20.8) 232 (12.7) 369
Time for having TB symptoms d (2,484)
  < 2 weeks 413 (62.6) 809 (44.4) 1222 < 0.01
  ≥ 2 weeks 247 (37.4) 1015 (55.6) 1262
Previously treated (2484)
 No 601 (91.1) 1549 (84.9) 2150 < 0.01
 Yes 59 (8.9) 275 (15.1) 334
Symptoms with cough (2463)
 No 412 (62.5) 641 (35.5) 1053 < 0.01
 Yes 247 (37.5) 1163 (64.5) 1410
Symptoms with blood sputum (2463)
 No 618 (93.8) 1598 (88.6) 2216 < 0.01
 Yes 41 (6.2) 206 (11.4) 247
Cavitation on chest X-ray (2445)
 No 574 (87.5) 1099 (61.4) 1673 < 0.01
 Yes 82 (12.5) 690 (38.6) 772
Bilateral lung lobes affected (2445)
 No 435 (66.3) 787 (44.0) 1222 < 0.01
 Yes 221 (33.7) 1002 (56.0) 1223
Diabetes comorbidity (2303)
 No 560 (91.2) 1412 (83.6) 1972 < 0.01
 Yes 54 (8.8) 277 (16.4) 331
Extra-pulmonary TB concomitance (2303)
 No 557 (90.7) 1492 (88.3) 2049 0.11
 Yes 57 (9.3) 197 (11.7) 254
  1. a Totally 30 were age < 15, among whom 20 were bacteriologically negative and 10 were bacteriologically positive. b Occupations in food industry, public transportation, public service attendants, and factory workers. c Designated TB hospital with inpatients. d Defined as the period from symptoms onset to the first arrival in TB facilities