Skip to main content

Table 1 Summary table of non-modifiable risk factors, by 28-day survival status

From: Modifiable healthcare factors affecting 28-day survival in bloodstream infection: a prospective cohort study

Risk factor   Survived (n = 1328) Died (n = 348) Overall (n = 1676)
n % n % n %
Patient measures
 Age Median (IQR) 67.0 (51.0, 79.0) 74.0 (62.0, 83.5) 68.5 (53.0, 80.0)
 Male   728/1328 54.8% 191/348 54.9% 919/1676 54.8%
 Body mass index a Mean (SD) 26.1 (6.7) 25.3 (5.9) 26.0 (6.6)
Patient medical history
 Chemotherapy in month before date 0   201/1328 15.1% 57/348 16.4% 258/1676 15.4%
 Any tumour within last 5 years   419/1328 31.6% 156/348 44.8% 575/1676 34.3%
 Surgery (overnight stay) ≤7 days before date 0   118/1327 8.9% 34/348 9.8% 152/1675 9.1%
 Burn requiring admission ≤7 days before date 0   3/1326 0.2% 1/347 0.3% 4/1673 0.2%
 Cardiac arrest ≤7 days before date 0   5/1328 0.4% 5/348 1.4% 10/1676 0.6%
 Renal support ≤7 days before date 0   81/1328 6.1% 44/348 12.6% 125/1676 7.5%
 Myocardial infarction ≤7 days before date 0   128/1328 9.6% 44/348 12.6% 172/1676 10.3%
Infection severity measures
 Mental Disorientation:
  None   1113/1327 83.9% 257/348 73.9% 1370/1675 81.8%
  Grade I   66/1327 5.0% 20/348 5.7% 86/1675 5.1%
  Grade II   86/1327 6.5% 42/348 12.1% 128/1675 7.6%
  Grade III   54/1327 4.1% 20/348 5.7% 74/1675 4.4%
  Grade IV   8/1327 0.6% 9/348 2.6% 17/1675 1.0%
Temperature (°C) at time 0 b Mean (SD) 38.2 (1.0) 37.7 (1.2) 38.1 (1.1)
eGFR (mL/min/1.73m2) c Median (IQR) 65.0 (37.0, 90.0) 52.5 (26.5, 84.0) 62.0 (35.0, 90.0)
Serum albumin (g/L) d Mean (SD) 32.6 (7.5) 27.2 (7.9) 31.5 (7.9)
Bilirubin total (micromol /L) e Median (IQR) 12.0 (7.0, 20.5) 13.0 (8.0, 23.0) 12.0 (8.0, 21.0)
Neutrophil count at day 0 or closest (× 109/L) f Median (IQR) 9.3 (5.4, 13.8) 10.2 (4.8, 15.3) 9.5 (5.3, 14.1)
Systolic BP at day 0 or closest (mmHg) g Mean (SD) 122.9 (26.2) 117.9 (28.7) 121.9 (26.8)
On intravenous fluids at day 0   450/1324 34.0% 165/348 47.4% 615/1672 36.8%
On ventilation at day 0   90/1323 6.8% 66/348 19.0% 156/1671 9.3%
On vasopressor drugs at day 0   60/1327 4.5% 48/348 13.8% 108/1675 6.4%
Systemic corticosteroids in last 24 h   149/1324 11.3% 81/347 23.3% 230/1671 13.8%
Early warning score nearest to day 0
  ≤ 3   468/687 68.1% 99/173 57.2% 567/860 65.9%
  > 3   219/687 31.9% 74/173 42.8% 293/860 34.1%
Patient comorbidities at date 0
 Congestive heart failure   151/1328 11.4% 61/348 17.5% 212/1676 12.6%
 Peripheral vascular disease   103/1328 7.8% 43/348 12.4% 146/1676 8.7%
 Cerebrovascular disease   198/1328 14.9% 74/348 21.3% 272/1676 16.2%
 Hemiplegia   50/1328 3.8% 18/348 5.2% 68/1676 4.1%
 Dementia   99/1327 7.5% 39/348 11.2% 138/1675 8.2%
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease   160/1327 12.1% 57/348 16.4% 217/1675 13.0%
 Connective tissue disease   117/1328 8.8% 30/348 8.6% 147/1676 8.8%
 Peptic ulcer disease   86/1328 6.5% 31/348 8.9% 117/1676 7.0%
 Ascites   48/1328 3.6% 32/348 9.2% 80/1676 4.8%
 Diabetes   276/1328 20.8% 81/348 23.3% 357/1676 21.3%
 Modified Child-Pugh score h Median (IQR) 6.0 (6.0, 7.0) 7.0 (6.0, 8.0) 7.0 (6.0, 8.0)
 Modified Charlson score i Median (IQR) 3.0 (2.0, 4.0) 4.0 (2.0, 5.0) 3.0 (2.0, 4.0)
 Infected foreign body at time 0   16/1327 1.2% 3/347 0.9% 19/1674 1.1%
Source of infection (CDC criteria)
 Bone and joint   59/1327 4.4% 6/348 1.7% 65/1675 3.9%
 Cardiovascular system   25/1327 1.9% 5/348 1.4% 30/1675 1.8%
 Central nervous system   9/1327 0.7% 0/348 0.0% 9/1675 0.5%
 Eye, ear, nose, throat or mouth   3/1327 0.2% 1/348 0.3% 4/1675 0.2%
 Gastrointestinal system   134/1327 10.1% 16/348 4.6% 150/1675 9.0%
 Line infection – central venous line   123/1327 9.3% 15/348 4.3% 138/1675 8.2%
 Line infection – peripheral venous line   20/1327 1.5% 7/348 2.0% 27/1675 1.6%
 Lower respiratory tract   61/1327 4.6% 57/348 16.4% 118/1675 7.0%
 Reproductive tract   9/1327 0.7% 2/348 0.6% 11/1675 0.7%
 Skin and soft tissue   98/1327 7.4% 20/348 5.7% 118/1675 7.0%
 Surgical site infection   37/1327 2.8% 4/348 1.1% 41/1675 2.4%
 Urinary tract infection   386/1327 29.1% 61/348 17.5% 447/1675 26.7%
 Site uncertain   363/1327 27.4% 15,446/348 44.3% 517/1675 30.0%
Organisational factors
 Admission from nursing home   97/1327 7.3% 40/348 11.5% 137/1675 8.2%
 Length of prior hospital stay (days) Median (IQR) 1.0 (0.0, 10.0) 5.0 (0.0, 14.0) 1.0 (0.0, 11.0)
 Hospital or community acquired infection
  Hospital   548/1328 41.3% 201/348 57.8% 749/1676 44.7%
  Community   780/1328 58.7% 147/348 42.2% 927/1676 55.3%
 Speciality of consultant on day 0:
  Medicine   559/1217 45.9% 171/333 51.4% 730/1550 47.1%
  High dependency medicine   202/1217 16.6% 80/333 24.0% 282/1550 18.2%
  Major surgery   355/1217 29.2% 60/333 18.0% 415/1550 26.8%
  Minor surgery   9/1217 0.7% 3/333 0.9% 12/1550 0.8%
  Other   92/1217 7.6% 19/333 5.7% 111/1550 7.2%
  1. Abbreviations: SD Standard deviation, IQR Interquartile range, eGFR Estimated glomerular filtration rate, BP Blood pressure, CDC Centres for Disease Control and Prevention
  2. a Data missing for 799 patients (604 survived, 195 died)
  3. b Data missing for 30 patients (20 survived, 10 died)
  4. c Data missing for 118 patients (98 survived, 20 died)
  5. d Data missing for 200 patients (161 survived, 39 died)
  6. e Data missing for 267 patients (216 survived, 51 died)
  7. f Data missing for 139 patients (110 survived, 29 died)
  8. g Data missing for 246 patients (196 survived, 50 died)
  9. h Data missing for 1075 patients (867 survived, 208 died)
  10. i Data missing for 377 patients (299 survived, 78 died)