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Table 3 Factors associated with CD8+ T cells secreting cytokines in the univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis

From: Association among cytokine profiles of innate and adaptive immune responses and clinical-virological features in untreated patients with chronic hepatitis B

Variable CD8_IFN-γ CD8_TNF-α CD8_IL-2
Univariate (raw effects) Multivariate (adjusted effects) Univariate (raw effects) Multivariate (adjusted effects) Univariate (raw effects) Multivariate (adjusted effects)
B (95% CI) P Adjusted B (95% CI) Adjusted P B (95% CI) P Adjusted B (95% CI) Adjusted P B (95% CI) P Adjusted B (95% CI) Adjusted P
Age (≥ 25 vs <  25 years) 8.08 (1.79, 14.36) 0.012 6.92 (0.41, 13.43) 0.037 8.2 (1.04, 15.37) 0.025 6.89 (−0.59, 14.37) 0.071 0.11 (− 0.36, 0.58) 0.635 0.09 (− 0.42, 0.59) 0.729
Gender (Male ve Female) 5.25 (−0.69, 11.2) 0.083 3.36 (−2.7, 9.41) 0.275 5.41 (− 1.35, 12.17) 0.116 3.81 (−3.15, 10.77) 0.281 0.22 (−0.22, 0.65) 0.334 0.13 (−0.34, 0.6) 0.586
Family History (Yes vs No) −1.42 (−6.86, 4.02) 0.607 −3.27 (−9.39, 2.86) 0.293 −0.56 (− 6.75, 5.62) 0.858 −2.22 (− 9.26, 4.82) 0.534 0.01 (− 0.38, 0.41) 0.943 −0.03 (− 0.5, 0.44) 0.903
Vertical Transmission (Yes vs No) −0.84 (−8.24, 6.57) 0.824 1.82 (− 6.43, 10.08) 0.663 − 0.85 (− 9.26, 7.55) 0.841 0.72 (− 8.77, 10.2) 0.881 − 0.01 (− 0.56, 0.53) 0.961 −0.03 (− 0.67, 0.61) 0.931
Infection Time (≥ 20 vs <  20 years) 4.76 (− 2.88, 12.4) 0.220 0.97 (− 7, 8.94) 0.810 6.1 (− 2.56, 14.75) 0.166 2.69 (− 6.47, 11.86) 0.562 − 0.08 (− 0.65, 0.48) 0.769 − 0.16 (− 0.77, 0.46) 0.616
Log HBsAg − 0.021 (− 0.033, − 0.009) 0.001 −0.2 (− 4.62, 4.23) 0.931 0.54 (− 4, 37, 5.44) 0.829 0.98 (− 4.11, 6.07) 0.704 0.08 (− 0.24, 0.40) 0.621 0.01 (− 0.33, 0.36) 0.938
Log HBV DNA −0.054 (− 0.087, − 0.021) 0.001 −2.08 (− 4.35, 0.2) 0.073 −0.12 (− 1.37, 1.12) 0.849 −1.59 (− 4.2, 1.03) 0.232 0.26 (− 0.2, 0.72) 0.260 − 0.06 (− 0.24, 0.11) 0.483
HBeAg (Positive vs Negative) −2.35 (− 7.78, 3.08) 0.394 3.87 (− 5.24, 12.97) 0.402 − 1.37 (− 7.54, 4.81) 0.662 2.98 (−7.48, 13.45) 0.574 − 0.22 (− 0.62, 0.17) 0.266 − 0.01 (− 0.72, 0.69) 0.969
ALT (<  2 ULN is the reference group)
 ≥ 2 & < 5 ULN 10.78 (3.81, 17.75) 0.003 12.5 (4.87, 20.13) 0.002 12.08 (4.18, 19.99) 0.003 13.05 (4.29, 21.82) 0.004 −0.14 (− 0.67, 0.38) 0.594 − 0.05 (− 0.64, 0.54) 0.859
 ≥ 5ULN 2.77 (−5.9, 11.45) 0.528 4.93 (−4.61, 14.48) 0.309 5.47 (− 4.38, 15.31) 0.274 6.68 (−4.29, 17.65) 0.230 0.20 (−0.45, 0.86) 0.539 0.23 (−0.51, 0.97) 0.533
Genotype (Genotype C is the reference group)
 B −3.57 (−10.39, 3.24) 0.302 −2.42 (−9.2, 4.36) 0.481 −6.27 (−16.8, 4.25) 0.240 − 3.21 (− 11, 4.58) 0.417 −0.52 (− 1.02, − 0.03) 0.039 − 0.49 (− 1.02, 0.03) 0.067
 N − 3.71 (− 12.99, 5.56) 0.430 − 10.05 (− 21.31, 1.22) 0.080 −8.65 (− 21.77, 4.47) 0.195 −10.2 (− 23.15, 2.74) 0.121 − 0.36 (− 1.04, 0.31) 0.288 −0.59 (− 1.46, 0.28) 0.184
 O − 8.44 (− 20.01, 3.13) 0.152 −7.3 (− 18.92, 4.32) 0.216 − 4.83 (− 12.56, 2.9) 0.219 − 6.66 (− 20.01, 6.7) 0.326 − 0.68 (− 1.52, 0.16) 0.113 − 0.64 (− 1.54, 0.26) 0.161
  1. Significant values are shown in boldface. B: Unstandardized Coefficients. HBV genotype: Other included C + D, B + D, B + C, D; N, not detected
  2. ALT alanine aminotransferase, HBeAg HBV e antigen, HBsAg hepatitis B surface antigen;