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Table 2 Risk factors of in-hospital outcome in patients with infective endocarditis (univariate analysis)

From: Epidemiology and risk factors of infective endocarditis in a tertiary hospital in China from 2007 to 2016

Variable, n (%)In-hospital outcomeP value
Survival
n = 364
Death
n = 43
Age,mean ± SD48 ± 1653 ± 16.047
Man237 (65.1)25 (58.1).367
Underlying heart disease194 (53.3)27 (62.8).237
Rheumatic heart disease62 (17.0)7 (16.3).901
Congenital heart disease95 (26.1)10 (23.3).687
Previous cardiac surgery33 (9.1)11 (25.6).001
Degenerative heart disease13 (3.6)0.377
Others18 (4.9)4 (9.3).273
Comorbidities
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary  disease5 (1.4)1 (2.3).491
 Cancer11 (3.0)1 (2.3)>.05
 Hemodialysis9 (2.5)5 (11.6).002
 Hepatitis B virus infection16 (4.4)2 (4.7)>.05
 Liver cirrhosis4 (1.1)0>.05
 Hypertension68 (18.7)14 (32.6).032
 Diabetes mellitus32 (8.8)5 (11.6).541
Complications
 Heart failure179 (49.2)36 (83.7)<.001
 Intracranial infection15 (4.1)2 (4.7).698
 Cerebral embolism55 (15.1)19 (44.2)<.001
 Cerebral hemorrhage16 (4.4)7 (16.3).001
 Arrhythmia65 (17.9)15 (34.9).008
 Hepatic insufficiency57 (15.7)15 (34.9).002
 Renal insufficiency60 (16.5)21 (48.8)<.001
 Pulmonary hypertension92 (25.6)24 (57.1)<.001
 Valvular perforation64 (17.7)8 (18.6).881
 Perivalvular abscess26 (7.2)4 (9.3).544
Vegetation length  <.001
 ≤10 mm87 (23.9)3 (7.0) 
 >10 mm<20 mm177 (48.6)20 (46.5) 
 ≥20 mm ≤ 30 mm46 (12.6)5 (11.6) 
 >30 mm4 (1.1)8 (18.6)<.001
Vegetation extent142 (39.0)16 (37.2).819
IE type  .004
 Native valve IE337 (92.6)33 (76.7) 
 Prosthetic valve IE or cardiac device–related IE27 (7.4)10 (23.3).001
 Previous antibiotic use291 (82.4)30 (75.0).249
Causative organism  .049
 Streptococci95 (26.1)5 (11.6) 
 Staphylococci69 (19.0)11 (25.6) 
Staphylococcus aureus32 (8.8)8 (18.6)<.001
Pitt score  <.001
 <4359 (98.6)23 (53.5) 
 ≥45 (1.4)20 (46.5) 
Surgical treatment221 (60.7)14 (32.6)<.001
  1. SD Standard deviation, IE Infective endocarditis