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Table 2 Cytomegalovirus infection during pregnancy, and potential impact of screening or a prevention program promoting hygiene. Figures are numbers (%) for the best and minimal and maximum; % are provided with one decimal when > 1%, two decimals when ≤1% but > 0.1%, and three decimals when ≤0.1%.

From: Hygiene promotion might be better than serological screening to deal with Cytomegalovirus infection during pregnancy: a methodological appraisal and decision analysis

State Current situation Screening Promotion of hygiene
Best (%) Minimum (%) Maximum (%) Best (%) Minimum (% Maximum (%) Best (%) Minimum (% Maximum (%)
CMV seronegative 435,200 (54.4) 598,400 (74.8) 312,000 (39.0) 433,683 (54.2) 595,414 (74,4) 310,128 (38,8) 435,200 (54.4) 598,400 (74.8) 312,000 (39.0)
MPI 4352 (0.54) 1197 (0.15) 4368 (0.55) 3018 (0.38) 1270 (0.16) 3069 (0.38) 2176 (0.27) 598 (0.07) 2184 (0.27)
Foetal infection in CMV- 1741 (0.22) 60 (0.0008) 3154 (0.39) 1741 (0.22) 60 (0.008) 3154 (0.39) 870 (0.11) 30 (0.004) 1577 (0.20)
CMV seropositive 364,800 (49.6) 201,600 (25.2) 488,000 (61.0) 366,317 (45.8) 204,586 (25.6) 488,408 (61,1) 364,800 (45.6) 201,600 (25.2) 488,000 (61.0)
Foetal infection after RI 1699 (0.21) 1540 (0.19) 1726 (0.22) 1699 (0.21) 1540 (0.19) 1726 (0.22) 1699 (0.21) 1540 (0.19) 1726 (0.22)
Total foetal infections 3440 (0.43) 1600 (0.20) 4880 (0.61) 3440 (0.43) 1600 (0.20) 4880 (0.61) 2569 (0.32) 1570 (0.20) 3303 (0.41)
Deaths & TOP 316 0.040) 147 (0.018) 449 (0.056) 919 (0.12) 183 (0.023) 1968 (0.25) 236 (0.030) 144 (0.018) 304 (0.038)
Total congenital infections 3123 (0.39) 1453 (0.18) 4431 (0.55) 2522 (0.32) 1417 (0.18) 2913 (0.36) 2333 (0.29) 1425 (0.18) 2999 (0.37)
Symptomatic in RI 60 (0.008) 54 (0.007) 60 (0.008) 60 (0.008) 54 (0.007) 60 (0.008) 60 (0.008) 54 (0.007) 60 (0.008)
Symptomatic in MPI 60 (0.008) 2 (< 0.001) 110 (0.014) 41 (0.005) 1 (< 0.001) 61 (0.008) 30 (0.004) 1 (< 0.001) 55 (0.007)
Severe symptomatic 60 (0.008) 28 (0.004) 85 (0.011) 50 (0.006) 27 (0,003) 60 (0.008) 45 (0.006) 27 (0,003) 58 (0.007)
Moderate symptomatic 60 (0.008) 28 (0.004) 85 (0.011) 50 (0.006) 27 (0,003) 60 (0.008) 45 (0.006) 27 (0,003) 58 (0.007)
Sequelae asymptom. RI 197 (0.025) 179 (0.022) 200 (0.025) 197 (0.025) 179 (0.022) 200 (0.025) 197 (0.025) 179 (0.022) 200 (0.025)
Sequelae asymptom. MPI 202 (0.025) 7 (< 0.001) 366 (0.05) 125 (0.016) 2 (< 0.001) 171 (0,022) 101 (0.013) 3 (< 0.001) 183 (0.023)
Severe sequela (symptom) 48 (0.006) 22 (0.003) 68 (0.009) 40 (0.005) 22 (0.003) 48 (0.006) 36 (0.005) 22 (0.003) 46 (0.006)
Mod. sequelae (symptom) 35 (0.004) 11 (0.001) 35 (0.004) 21 (0.003) 11 (0.001) 25 (0.003) 18 (0.002) 11 (0.001) 24 (0.003)
Total poor outcomes 788 (0.099) 367 (0.046) 1119 (0.14) 1301 (0.16) 397 (0.050) 2413 (0.30) 588 (0.074) 356 (0.045) 757 (0.095)
  1. CMV cytomegalovirus; RI recurrent infection in CMV seropositive mothers; MPI maternal primary infection; CMV- mothers who are CMV seronegative before pregnancy; TOP termination of pregnancy; asymptom.: if asymptomatic at birth; Mod.: moderate; symptom: if symptomatic at birth