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Table 1 Basic characteristics of cohort/case-control studies included

From: Double-carbapenem therapy in the treatment of multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author/Year

Region

Design

Infection

Organism

Sample size (D/C)

Agea

(years)

(D/C)

Antibiotics

Antimicrobial susceptibility test (μg/ml) (D/C)

Treatment durationa (days) (D/C)

Follow-up time (days) (D/C)

Outcomesb

DCT

Control

Pascale, 2017 [33]

Italy

retrospective study

VAP (51), HAP (23), BSI (16), SBSI (49), CVCI (18), UTI (12), IAI (19), SSTI (12), MSI (7)

CRKP

48/96

D: 55.5 ± 15

C: 61.3 ± 12

ETP 1 g q12h/2 g q24h

MEM 2 g q8h

(3 h infusions)

CST

GEN

TGC

monotherapy or combined

CAB ≥1 R 48/96

CST ≤2 S 28/64

GEN ≤2 S 15/72

TGC ≤1 S 16/58

D: 17 (11.5–25.5)

C: 11.5 (7.5–15.5)

90/90

Venugopalan, 2017 [34]

USA

retrospective study

BSI

CRKP

18/18

D: 72(61–83)

C: 62(48–75)

ETP 1 g q24h

DOR 2 g q8h

(4 h infusions)

DOR + CST

ETP -

DORc 8 (8–32)/−

CSTc 8 (0.5–12)/1.25 (0.75–3.5)

D: 12 (7–14)

C: 9 (7–12)

30/30

Cancelli, 2018 [35]

Italy

retrospective study

PNA (12), BSI (14),

UTI (37), STI (12)

CPCRE

21/34

D: 62.28 ± 12.1

C: 61.18 ± 17

ETP 1 g/d

MEM 6 g/d

CST

CST + TGC/GEN/RIF/CAB

AMG

AMG + CAB

MEM + FLQ

ETPd 256 R 20/− e

MEMd 256 R 20/− e

CST R 10/6

TGC R 11/18

RIF -

AMG R 8/4

FLQ R 21/31

D: 39.2 ± 29.5

C: 20.4 ± 14.1

60/60

  1. Abbreviations: D double-carbapenem therapy (DCT) group, C the control group, PNA pneumonia, HAP hospital-acquired pneumonia, VAP ventilator-associated pneumonia, BSI bloodstream infection, SBSI secondary bloodstream infection, CVCI central venous catheter infection, UTI urinary tract infection, IAI intra-abdominal infection, SSTI skin and soft tissue infection, STI soft tissue infection, MSI multiple site infection, CRKP carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae, CPCRE carbapenemase producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, MEM meropenem, ETP ertapenem, DOR doripenem, GEN gentamicin, CST colistin, TGC tigecycline, RIF rifampicin, AMG aminoglycosides, CAB carbapenem antibiotics, FLQ fluoroquinolones, S sensitive, R resistant
  2. -: not reported
  3. a. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD), or median (range or interquartile range)
  4. b. clinical response; microbiological response; mortality
  5. c. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antibiotics is expressed as mean or median (interquartile range)
  6. d. The MIC of antibiotics is represented by MIC50
  7. e. The remaining strains are not available