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Table 1 Basic characteristics of cohort/case-control studies included

From: Double-carbapenem therapy in the treatment of multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author/YearRegionDesignInfectionOrganismSample size (D/C)Agea
(years)
(D/C)
AntibioticsAntimicrobial susceptibility test (μg/ml) (D/C)Treatment durationa (days) (D/C)Follow-up time (days) (D/C)Outcomesb
DCTControl
Pascale, 2017 [33]Italyretrospective studyVAP (51), HAP (23), BSI (16), SBSI (49), CVCI (18), UTI (12), IAI (19), SSTI (12), MSI (7)CRKP48/96D: 55.5 ± 15
C: 61.3 ± 12
ETP 1 g q12h/2 g q24h
MEM 2 g q8h
(3 h infusions)
CST
GEN
TGC
monotherapy or combined
CAB ≥1 R 48/96
CST ≤2 S 28/64
GEN ≤2 S 15/72
TGC ≤1 S 16/58
D: 17 (11.5–25.5)
C: 11.5 (7.5–15.5)
90/90
Venugopalan, 2017 [34]USAretrospective studyBSICRKP18/18D: 72(61–83)
C: 62(48–75)
ETP 1 g q24h
DOR 2 g q8h
(4 h infusions)
DOR + CSTETP -
DORc 8 (8–32)/−
CSTc 8 (0.5–12)/1.25 (0.75–3.5)
D: 12 (7–14)
C: 9 (7–12)
30/30
Cancelli, 2018 [35]Italyretrospective studyPNA (12), BSI (14),
UTI (37), STI (12)
CPCRE21/34D: 62.28 ± 12.1
C: 61.18 ± 17
ETP 1 g/d
MEM 6 g/d
CST
CST + TGC/GEN/RIF/CAB
AMG
AMG + CAB
MEM + FLQ
ETPd 256 R 20/− e
MEMd 256 R 20/− e
CST R 10/6
TGC R 11/18
RIF -
AMG R 8/4
FLQ R 21/31
D: 39.2 ± 29.5
C: 20.4 ± 14.1
60/60
  1. Abbreviations: D double-carbapenem therapy (DCT) group, C the control group, PNA pneumonia, HAP hospital-acquired pneumonia, VAP ventilator-associated pneumonia, BSI bloodstream infection, SBSI secondary bloodstream infection, CVCI central venous catheter infection, UTI urinary tract infection, IAI intra-abdominal infection, SSTI skin and soft tissue infection, STI soft tissue infection, MSI multiple site infection, CRKP carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae, CPCRE carbapenemase producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, MEM meropenem, ETP ertapenem, DOR doripenem, GEN gentamicin, CST colistin, TGC tigecycline, RIF rifampicin, AMG aminoglycosides, CAB carbapenem antibiotics, FLQ fluoroquinolones, S sensitive, R resistant
  2. -: not reported
  3. a. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD), or median (range or interquartile range)
  4. b. clinical response; microbiological response; mortality
  5. c. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antibiotics is expressed as mean or median (interquartile range)
  6. d. The MIC of antibiotics is represented by MIC50
  7. e. The remaining strains are not available