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Table 1 Eligibility criteria

From: Ultrasound in managing extrapulmonary tuberculosis: a randomized controlled two-center study

- Adult (≥18 years)
- Documented HIV status (HIV- positive and HIV- negative)
- Suspected extrapulmonary tuberculosis*:
presence of ≥1 sign or symptom of the following:
• Fever of any duration,
• Night sweat during 3 weeks within the last 4 weeks
• Weight loss
presence of ≥1 sign or symptom of the following:
• Nuchal, cervical, axillary or generalized lymphadenopathy
• Abdominal pain or ascites
• Neurological symptoms (reduced consciousness, confusion, stiff neck, focal signs, persisting headache)
• Presence of severe anaemia (hemoglobin < 8 g/dl) in an HIV infected patient under antiretroviral treatment
• Local pain and spinal deformity, or arthritis suggesting spinal or osteoarticular tuberculosis
• Painless hematuria or sterile pyuria, scrotal nodules or epididymal Hardening, or salpingitis suggesting urogenital tuberculosis
• Chest x-ray with signs of miliary pattern, pleural effusion or suspected pericardial effusion
No other obvious explanation for these signs
* with or without concomitant signs of pulmonary tuberculosis (i.e cough or chest x-ray with upper lobe infiltrate, cavernous lesion)
- Pregnancy
- Patients already on anti-tuberculosis treatment
- Refusal to participate or sign informed consent
- Not available for follow-up visits