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Table 3 Salivary and sputum bacterial concentrations, distribution of Staphylococcus aureus, and pneumonia hospitalization status: differences between the intervention group and control group

From: The effect of oral care intervention on pneumonia hospitalization, Staphylococcus aureus distribution, and salivary bacterial concentration in Taiwan nursing home residents: a pilot study

 Intervention (N = 25)Control (N = 16) 
Mean ± SDMinMdnMaxMean ± SDMinMdnMaxp-valuec
Bacterial concentrations (×105CFU/mL)
 Saliva
  Before4.27 ± 3.650.563.3014.262.66 ± 3.320.011.5212.990.04
  After0.75 ± 1.20<  0.010.305.094.74 ± 9.530.081.2333.43<  0.01
  Difference−3.52 ± 3.37   2.08 ± 10.49    
p-valueb<  0.01   0.63    
 Sputum
  Before0.59 ± 0.740.040.343.491.11 ± 1.63<  0.010.415.700.64
  After16.59 ± 75.99<  0.010.35381.0657.94 ± 226.080.161.07905.720.04
  Difference16.00 ± 76.08   56.83 ± 226.38    
p-valueb0.72   0.53    
Distribution ofStaphylococcus aureus(%)a
 Saliva
  Before11.11 ± 14.470.006.2541.679.03 ± 11.310.004.1725.000.81
  After1.74 ± 3.750.000.0012.501.39 ± 2.150.000.004.170.86
  Difference−9.38 ± 12.33   −7.64 ± 12.75    
p-valueb0.02   0.31    
 Sputum
  Before14.17 ± 23.290.004.1787.5022.66 ± 27.890.0012.5083.330.39
  After5.17 ± 10.980.000.0050.005.21 ± 9.800.000.0033.330.91
  Difference−9.00 ± 25.16   −17.40 ± 32.96    
p-valueb0.23   0.07    
Pneumonia hospitalization
 Annual prevalence
  Before1.24 ± 1.510.001.005.001.06 ± 1.060.001.003.001.00
  After0.48 ± 0.590.000.002.001.00 ± 1.210.001.003.000.28
  Difference−0.76 ± 1.36   −0.06 ± 0.21    
p-valueb0.01   1.00    
 Hospitalization duration (days)
  Before10.44 ± 10.950.0010.0040.008.25 ± 8.830.009.0032.000.52
  After6.14 ± 7.490.000.0019.005.29 ± 6.410.007.0022.000.73
  Difference−4.30 ± 11.49   −2.96 ± 2.00    
p-valueb0.13   0.20    
  1. Mdn: Median; CFU: Colony-forming unit; a(%): percentage of S. aureus in 24 randomly and originally selected single colonies; bWilcoxon signed-rank test; cWilcoxon rank-sum test