Skip to main content

Table 4 Associations between household factors and H. pylori infection status in school children in Ziway, central Ethiopia

From: Individual and household correlates of Helicobacter pylori infection among Young Ethiopian children in Ziway, Central Ethiopia

 PositiveH. pyloriNegativeH. pylori         
N%N%COR(95% CI)PAOR(95% CI)PAORa(95% CI)P
Maternal education
 Formal16264.09136.011
 Non-formal12368.05832.01.19(0.80–1.79)0.400.39(0.03–5.05)0.47
Maternal occupation
 Housewife13669.06131.01.32(0.88–1.97)0.181.24(0.81–1.91)0.321.27(0.84–1.94)0.26
 Employed14962.98837.1111
Socioeconomic statusb
 Good15563.39036.7111
 Poor13068.85931.21.29(0.86–1.91)0.233.85(0.29–50.8)0.311.33(0.86–2.06)0.21
Lack of paracetamolc
 Yes1967.9932.11.11(0.49–2.52)0.801.05(0.42–2.59)0.92
 No26665.514034.511
Residence location
 Rural850.0850.00.51(0.19–1.39)0.190.40(0.12–1.33)0.140.39(0.12–1.25)0.11
 Urban27766.314133.7111
Number of people in house
 2–518264.510035.511
  > 510367.84932.21.16(0.76–1.76)0.501.19(0.75–1.90)0.45
Smokers in house
 Yes738.91161.10.32(0.12–0.84)0.020.35(0.12–0.99)0.050.32(0.11–0.89)0.03
 No27666.713833.3111
Housing materialsd
 Good24065.012935.011
 Poor4569.22030.81.21(0.69–2.14)0.511.37(0.73–2.59)0.33
Housing conditionse
 Good25165.413334.611   
 Poor346816321.13(0.60–2.12)0.710.98(0.49–1.94)0.95
Cooking location          
 Inside house22266.911033.111   
 Outside house6261.43938.60.79(0.50–1.25)0.310.69(0.40–1.19)0.18
Cooking with natural materialsf          
 Yes20463.711636.30.72(0.45–1.14)0.160.65(0.34–1.24)0.190.65(0.39–1.09)0.10
 No8171.13328.9111
Gas or electric cooking             
 Yes6268.12931.911
 No22365.012035.00.87(0.53–1.42)0.580.90(0.45–1.80)0.77
Any electricity use in household             
 Yes26865.011435.0111
 No1777.3522.71.87(0.66–5.05)0.251.94(0.47–7.98)0.362.53(0.76–8.51)0.13
Cat or dog ownership
 Yes12567.66032.41.16(0.78–1.73)0.472.15(0.98–4.72)0.06
 No16064.38935.711
Farm animal ownershipg
 Yes10570.04530.01.35(0.88–2.06)0.172.03(0.72–5.70)0.181.16(0.51–2.68)0.72
 No18063.410436.6111
Any animal ownership
 Yes18366.59233.51.11(0.74–1.67)0.610.45(0.17–1.15)0.09
 No10264.25735.811
Main water source
 Piped27665.914334.111
 Well/natural water source960.0640.00.78(0.27–2.23)0.640.65(0.17–2.59)0.55
Type of toilet
 Flush or ventilated pit836.41463.6111
 Traditional pit or none27567.213432.83.59(1.47–8.77)0.013.78(1.40–10.3)0.013.93(1.51–10.3)0.01
Waste disposal
 pit/field/other5457.44042.60.64(0.40–1.02)0.060.61(0.36–1.04)0.070.61(0.37–1.02)0.06
 burning/garbage bin23167.910932.1111
Sanitationh
 Good18162.810737.2111
 Poor10471.24228.81.46(0.95–2.25)0.081.10(0.46–2.60)0.831.15(0.50–2.62)0.75
  1. aAOR includes only variables with COR p < 0.3
  2. bgood socioeconomic status defined as formal maternal education and any household electricity use
  3. Cack of paracetamol defined as lack of affordability or availability
  4. dpoor housing materials defined as mud and wood walls and uncovered mud floor
  5. epoor housing conditions defined as no child bed and cooking inside main living area in house
  6. fnatural materials defined as dung, leaves, and wood
  7. gfarm animals defined as hen, cow/ox, sheep, horse, goat, pig, and mule/donkey
  8. hpoor sanitation defined as tradition pit or no toilet and using dung for cooking