Skip to main content

Table 1 Demographics, initial principal diagnosis, infectious pathogens, and comorbidities of patients with meningitis and/or encephalitis with and without identified infectious pathogens

From: Predictors of infectious meningitis or encephalitis: the yield of cerebrospinal fluid in a cross-sectional study

Demographics and admission characteristicsTotal cohort (n = 372)Patients with identified pathogens (n = 159)Patients without identified pathogens (n = 213)p-value
Age (years; median, IQR)5436–715838–725135–700.217
Male (n, %)21557.88553.513061.00.143
Referral from other hospital (n, %)10127.23924.56229.10.326
Admission via emergency room (n, %)32487.113987.418586.80.872
Suspected meningitis and/or encephalitis as reason of admission (n, %)26270.411371.114969.90.815
Glasgow coma score on day of diagnosis (median, IQR)147–15134–151411–150.004
Initial clinical diagnosis
 Meningitis (n, %)17045.78150.98941.80.193
 Encephalitis (n, %)13636.65132.18539.9 
 Meningoencephalitis (n, %)6617.72717.03918.3 
Infectious pathogens
 Bacterial (n, %)7119.17144.6   
Streptococcus pneumoniae (n, %)277.32717.0   
Borrelia burgdorferi (n, %)143.8148.8   
Neisseria meningitidis (n, %)51.353.1   
  Others (n, %) (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterococcus faecalis, Listeria monocytogenes)256.72515.7   
 Viral (n, %)8522.88553.5   
Varicella zoster (n, %)256.72515.7   
Herpes simplex 1 & 2 (n, %)225.92213.8   
Enterovirus (n, %)215.62113.2   
  Others (n, %) (FSME-virus, Human herpesvirus 6, JC-virus)174.61710.7   
 Protozoal (all Toxoplasma gondii; n, %)30.831.9   
Comorbidities
 Charlson Comorbidity Index [16] (median, IQR)00–200–200–20.913
 Immunosuppression (n, %)11129.85836.55324.90.017
 History of drug abuse (n, %)277.3116.9167.50.827
 History of prior CNS disorders (n, %)14940.16742.18238.50.478
  Epileptic disorder (n, %)6517.52918.23616.90.737
  Prior meningitis and/or encephalitis (n, %)287.5159.4136.10.228
  Prior autoimmune CNS disease (n, %)30.821.310.5 
  Prior Dementia (n, %)113.053.162.8 
  Prior leukoencephalopathy (n, %)4612.42213.82411.30.457
  Prior stroke (n, %)236.242.5198.90.015
  Prior intracranial hemorrhage (n, %)133.574.462.80.410
  Prior neurodegenerative disorder other than dementia (n, %)71.921.352.4 
  Prior brain tumor (n, %)82.274.410.50.023
  1. IQR interquartile range, CNS central nervous system, CSF cerebrospinal fluid, FSME “Frühsommer”-Meningoenzephalitis; Boldp-values indicate significance set at ap-value of < 0.002 after correction for multiple comparisons (Bonferroni)
  2. All continuous variables were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test