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Table 5 Level of Antimicrobial Resistance of Uropathogen Bacterial Isolates among Mekelle University Students with Symptomatic UTI, Northern Ethiopia, February–September 2017

From: Bacteriological profile, risk factors and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of symptomatic urinary tract infection among students of Mekelle University, northern Ethiopia

Bacterial isolates(n)Antibiotics
Ro (%)R1 (%)R2 (%)R3 (%)R4 (%)MDR (%)ESBL producers(%)Total (%)
Gram Negative1(2.1)1(2.1)5(10.6)20(42.6)20(42.6)41(87.2%)12(25.5)47(100)
E.coli0(0.0)1(2.8)2(5.6)18(50)15(41.6)33 (88.9)10(27.8)36(100)
K. pneumonia1(16.7)0(0.0)1(16.7)2(33.3)2(33.3)5(83.3)2(33.3)6(100)
Citrobacter spp.0(0.0)0(0.0)1(50)0(0.0)1(50)1(50)0(0.0)2(100)
P.mirabilis.0(0.0)0(0.0)1(50)0(.00)1(50)1(50)0(0.0)2(100)
Enterobacter spps.0(0.0)0(.00)0(.00)0(0.0)1(100)1(100)0(0.0)1(100)
Gram positive5(18.5)4(14.8)4(18.5)8(29.6)6(18.5)13(48.1%)NT27(100)
CoNS4(23.5)2(11.8)3(17.6)5(29.5)3(17.6)7(41.2)NT17(100)
S. aureus1(10)2(20)1(10)3(30)3(30)6(60)NT10(100)
Total6(8.1)5 (6.8)9(12.2)28(37.8)26(35.1)54(73.0)12(25.5)74(100)
  1. Key;R0- susceptible to allantibiotics, R1- Resistance to one antibiotic, R2-Resistance to antibiotics, R3-Resistance to threeantibiotics, ≥ R4-resistance to four and above antibiotics, NT not test, MDR Multidrug resistant: non-susceptible to at least one agent in three antimicrobial categories [65]. Based on this definition, the following antimicrobial categories were considered to determine whether the given isolate is MDR Gram positive isolates and Enterobacteriacecae: aminoglycosides (gentamicin), cephems (ceftiraxone), pencillin (ampcillin), beta lactamase inhibitor combination (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid), fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin,norfloxacin), nitrofuran (nitrofurantoin), cotrimoxazole, tetracycline and phenicols (chloramphenicol). Of these, nalidixic acid and macrolides (erythromycin) was used only for enterobacteriacecae and Gram positive isolates