Skip to main content

Table 5 Level of Antimicrobial Resistance of Uropathogen Bacterial Isolates among Mekelle University Students with Symptomatic UTI, Northern Ethiopia, February–September 2017

From: Bacteriological profile, risk factors and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of symptomatic urinary tract infection among students of Mekelle University, northern Ethiopia

Bacterial isolates(n) Antibiotics
Ro (%) R1 (%) R2 (%) R3 (%) R4 (%) MDR (%) ESBL producers(%) Total (%)
Gram Negative 1(2.1) 1(2.1) 5(10.6) 20(42.6) 20(42.6) 41(87.2%) 12(25.5) 47(100)
E.coli 0(0.0) 1(2.8) 2(5.6) 18(50) 15(41.6) 33 (88.9) 10(27.8) 36(100)
K. pneumonia 1(16.7) 0(0.0) 1(16.7) 2(33.3) 2(33.3) 5(83.3) 2(33.3) 6(100)
Citrobacter spp. 0(0.0) 0(0.0) 1(50) 0(0.0) 1(50) 1(50) 0(0.0) 2(100)
P.mirabilis. 0(0.0) 0(0.0) 1(50) 0(.00) 1(50) 1(50) 0(0.0) 2(100)
Enterobacter spps. 0(0.0) 0(.00) 0(.00) 0(0.0) 1(100) 1(100) 0(0.0) 1(100)
Gram positive 5(18.5) 4(14.8) 4(18.5) 8(29.6) 6(18.5) 13(48.1%) NT 27(100)
CoNS 4(23.5) 2(11.8) 3(17.6) 5(29.5) 3(17.6) 7(41.2) NT 17(100)
S. aureus 1(10) 2(20) 1(10) 3(30) 3(30) 6(60) NT 10(100)
Total 6(8.1) 5 (6.8) 9(12.2) 28(37.8) 26(35.1) 54(73.0) 12(25.5) 74(100)
  1. Key;R0- susceptible to allantibiotics, R1- Resistance to one antibiotic, R2-Resistance to antibiotics, R3-Resistance to threeantibiotics, ≥ R4-resistance to four and above antibiotics, NT not test, MDR Multidrug resistant: non-susceptible to at least one agent in three antimicrobial categories [65]. Based on this definition, the following antimicrobial categories were considered to determine whether the given isolate is MDR Gram positive isolates and Enterobacteriacecae: aminoglycosides (gentamicin), cephems (ceftiraxone), pencillin (ampcillin), beta lactamase inhibitor combination (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid), fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin,norfloxacin), nitrofuran (nitrofurantoin), cotrimoxazole, tetracycline and phenicols (chloramphenicol). Of these, nalidixic acid and macrolides (erythromycin) was used only for enterobacteriacecae and Gram positive isolates