Skip to main content

Table 2 Univariate and multivariate analyses of the demographic, clinical characteristics, and risk factors in CDC groups

From: Risk factors for Clostridioides difficile infection and colonization among patients admitted to an intensive care unit in Shanghai, China

CharacteristicsCDC group
(n = 33)
non-CDC group
(n = 66)
Univariate AnalysisMultivariable logistic regression Analysis
n(%)/mean ± SDn(%)/mean ± SDOR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P value
Male17 (68.0)31 (62.0)0.768 (0.278–2.121)0.610  
Age (mean ± SD)62 ± 18.9359.06 ± 10.540.660  
Clinical features
Hospital duration (days)
(mean ± SD)
61.28 ± 66.1216.98 ± 11.480.003*1.137 (1.05–1.23)0.002*
Fever (≥ 38 °C)9 (36.0)7 (14.0)    
Leukocyte count (109 /L)
(mean ± SD)
9.84 ± 5.328.75 ± 5.070.389  
Serum albumin (g/L)
(mean ± SD)
31.12 ± 5.5533.80 ± 10.530.238  
Serum creatinine rise> 50%(μmol/L)2 (8.0)5 (10)0.779  
Mortality3 (12.0)2 (4.0)3.273 (0.51–21.002)0.190  
Classification of primary diagnosis
Gastrointestinal18 (72.0)30 (60.0)1.714 (0.606–4.852)0.307  
Respiratory15 (60.0)19 (38.0)2.447 (0.916–6.541)0.0710.043 (0.002–0.969)0.048*
Cardiovascular7 (28.0)18 (36.0)0.691 (0.243–1.969)0.488  
Renal9 (36.0)15 (30.0)1.313 (0.475–3.626)0.600  
Neurologic6 (24.0)3 (6.0)4.947 (1.121–21.838)0.024*  
Metabolic disorders12 (48.0)26 (52.0)0.852 (0.326–2.227)0.744  
NO. of comorbidities
1–213 (52.0)33 (66.0)0.13936.509 (2.602–512.183)0.008*
3–49 (36.0)17 (34.0)
≥53 (12.0)0 (0)
Treatments and procedures
Surgical intervention10 (40.0)4 (8.0)7.667 (2.094–28.068)0.001*  
Enteral feeding16 (64.0)16 (32.0)3.778 (1.376–10.372)0.008*  
PPI use8 (32.0)25 (50.0)0.471 (0.172–1.288)0.139  
Antibiotics use24 (96.0)41 (82.0)5.268 (0.628–44.178)0.093  
Antiviral drugs2 (8.0)3 (6.0)1.362 (0.213–8.729)0.743  
Antifungal agents7 (28.0)4 (8.0)4.472 (1.166–17.146)0.021*  
Cephalosporin9 (36.0)24 (48.0)0.609 (0.227–1.636)0.324  
Fluoroquinolone5 (20.0)8 (16.01.313 (0.381–4.525)0.666  
Carbapenem18 (70.0)21 (42.0)3.551 (1.258–10.027)0.014*  
Vancomycin12 (48.0)7 (14.0)5.67 (1.851–17.374)0.001*18.168 (1.036–318.503)0.047*
Metronidazole2 (8.0)12 (24.0)0.275 (0.056–1.342)0.0940.013 (0–0.512)0.021*
NO. of antibiotics received
01 (4.0)9 (18.0)0.076  
1–216 (64.0)33 (66.0)
≥38 (32.0)8 (16.0)
  1. Numerical data are shown as mean ± SD, and categorical data are described as frequency (percentage)
  2. *P < 0.05
  3. aThe indicated variables were made categorical, and analyzed for differences between the two groups by the Cochran–Armitage trend test