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Table 2 Cox univariate analysis of one-year mortality in patients ≥65 year old with infective endocarditis

From: The clinical features and prognosis of infective endocarditis in the elderly from 2007 to 2016 in a tertiary hospital in China

Variables% or Mean ±SD Survival
n = 47
Mortality
n = 12
P value
Clinical data
 Male 35 (74.5) 6 (50.0) .267
 Length of hospital stay 25 ± 21 16 ± 10 .052
 Symptoms before echocardiography 26 ± 37 16 ± 17 .355
 Duration of symptoms
before diagnosis, median (IQR),days
24.0 (12.0–42.0) 29.0 (10.3–54.8) .799
 Time interval from emboli to diagnosis 12 ± 10 11 ± 11 .868
 Time interval from cerebral emboli to diagnosis 15 ± 13 12 ± 12 .724
IE localization
 Native valve 40 (85.1) 9 (75.0) .518
 Prosthetic valve 6 (12.8) 2 (16.7) .862
 Community origin 42 (89.4) 5 (41.7) P<0.001
 Nosocomial origin 2 (4.3) 4 (33.3) P<0.001
Comorbidities
 With predisposing cardiac disease 29 (61.7) 6 (50.0) .457
 Rheumatic heart disease 8 (17.0) 3 (25.0) .752
 Congenital heart disease 9 (19.1) 1 (8.3) .482
 Previous cardiac surgery 10 (21.3) 4 (33.3) .475
 Degenerative heart disease 6 (12.8) 0 .466
 Chronic pulmonary disease 1 (2.1) 1 (8.3) .343
 Cancer 2 (4.3) 0 .690
 Hemodialysis 1 (2.1) 3 (25.0) .007
 Liver cirrhosis    .713
 Hypertension 18 (38.3) 7 (58.3) .272
 Diabetes 7 (14.9) 3 (25.0) .565
 Immunodepression 0 4 (33.3) P<0.001
 Bad oral hygiene 22 (46.8) 7 (58.3) .713
Symptoms and signs
 Anemia 31 (66.0) 7 (58.3) .425
 Fever 44 (93.6) 9 (75.0) .046
 Splenomegaly 11 (23.4) 2 (16.7) .491
 Hepatomegaly 1 (2.1) 1 (8.3) .516
 New or changing heart murmur 39 (83.0) 6 (50.0) .021
Complications
 Heart failure 25 (53.2) 12 (100.0) .106
 Total emboli 16 (34.0) 7 (58.3) .143
 Emboli under treatment 8 (17.0) 4 (33.3) .295
 Intracranial infection 1 (2.1) 0 .713
 Cerebral emboli 8 (17.0) 6 (50.0) .053
 Cerebral hemorrhage 1 (2.1) 1 (8.3) .404
 Arrhythmia 16 (34.0) 7 (58.3) .202
 Renal insufficiency 9 (19.1) 9 (75.0) .001
 Hepatic insufficiency 3 (6.4) 3 (25.0) .092
 Pulmonary arterial hypertension 15 (31.9) 8 (66.7) .037
 Moderate or severe valve regurgitation 10 (21.3) 2 (16.7) .570
 Moderate or severe valve stenosis 4 (8.5) 1 (8.3) .912
 Annular abscess 5 (10.6) 2 (16.7) .564
 Pseudoaneurysm 1 (2.1) 1 (8.3) .289
 Valvular perforation 10 (21.3) 3 (25.0) .781
 Pitt score ≥ 4 1 (2.1) 5 (41.7) .001
 Vegetation length    .062
≤10 mm 25 (53.2) 4 (33.3)  
>10 mm<20 mm 19 (40.4) 5 (41.7)  
≥20 mm ≤ 30 mm 3 (6.4) 1 (8.3)  
>30 mm 0 2 (16.7) .039
Microbiology    .050
 Streptococci 12 (48.0) 1 (16.7) .268
 Staphylococci 8 (32.0) 3 (50.0) .679
 Staphylococcus aureus 0 2 (33.3) .039
 Enterococci 1 (4.0) 0  
 Fungi 0 1 (16.7)  
 Surgical treatment 23 (48.9) 1 (8.3) .018