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Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics and migration history of Dutch aMASE-study participants (n = 247), 2013–2015

From: Disparities in access to and use of HIV-related health services in the Netherlands by migrant status and sexual orientation: a cross-sectional study among people recently diagnosed with HIV infection

  Total Migrant MSM Non-migrant MSM Migrant heterosexual men Non-migrant heterosexual men Migrant women  
(n = 247) (n = 77) (n = 115) (n = 21) (n = 14) (n = 20)  
n/N % n/N % n/N % n/N % n/N % n/N % p-value
Higher educational level (college degree or higher) 107/247 43.3 33/77 42.9 61/115 53.0 4/21 19.0 6/14 42.9 3/20 15.0 0.003
Currently working 185/246 75.2 58/77 75.3 99/115 86.1 10/21 47.6 9/14 64.3 9/19 47.4 < 0.001
Lower income level (less than minimum wage) 91/231 39.4 36/68 52.9 16/113 14.2 18/19 94.7 6/14 42.9 15/17 88.2 < 0.001
Moderate/severe household hunger in the past 4 weeks 49/244 20.1 15/74 20.3 15/115 13.0 9/21 42.9 2/14 14.3 8/20 40.0 0.004
Age (Median, IQR) 41 33–49 36 28–46 43 36–51 45 40–48 41 33–55 39 33–48 0.002
Years since migration to the Netherlands (Median, IQR) 10 4–23 8 4–25 NA 11 7–15 NA 11 4–22 0.965
Age at migration to the Netherlands (Median, IQR) 25 21–33 24 21–29 NA 34 26–38 NA 24 19–39 0.003
Region of birth              < 0.001
 Sub-Saharan Africa 30/118 25.4 4/77 5.2 NA 16/21 76.2 NA 10/20 50.0  
 Latin America / Caribbean 27/118 22.9 19/77 24.7 3/21 14.3 5/20 25.0  
 Europe 33/118 28.0 31/77 40.3 0/21 0.0 2/20 10.0  
 Other 28/118 23.7 23/77 29.9 2/21 9.5 3/20 15.0  
Self-defined ethnicity              < 0.001a
 European 149/245 60.80 35/76 46.1 99/114 86.8 0/21 0.0 12/14 85.7 3/20 15.0  
 Other 96/245 39.20 41/76 54.0 15/114 13.2 21/21 100.0 2/14 14.3 17/20 85.0  
 African 32/245 13.10 4/76 5.3 1/114 0.9 17/21 81.0 0/14 0.0 10/20 50.0  
 American 6/245 2.40 3/76 3.9 0/114 0.0 0/21 0.0 0/14 0.0 3/20 15.0  
 Asian 17/245 6.90 10/76 13.2 3/114 2.6 1/21 4.8 1/14 7.1 2/20 10.0  
 Mixed 20/245 8.20 10/76 13.2 7/114 6.1 1/21 4.8 0/14 0.0 2/20 10.0  
 Latin America / Caribbean 13/245 5.30 9/76 11.8 3/114 2.6 0/21 0.0 1/14 7.1 0/20 0.0  
 Middle Eastern 8/245 3.30 5/76 6.6 1/114 0.9 2/21 9.5 0/14 0.0 0/20 0.0  
Immigration status              < 0.001
 Permanent residency permit 84/108 77.8 63/72 87.5 NA 9/19 47.4 NA 12/17 70.6  
 Temporary residency permit 16/108 14.8 8/72 11.1 4/19 21.1 4/17 23.5  
 Refugee status / unknown 8/108 7.4 1/72 1.4 6/19 31.6 1/17 5.9  
Attending religious services at least once a year 74/239 31.0 23/72 31.9 20/115 17.4 14/18 77.8 2/14 14.3 15 /20 75.0 < 0.001
Recruitment site              0.012
 Amsterdam UMC (location AMC), Amsterdam 76/247 30.8 26/77 33.8 30/115 26.1 8/21 38.1 6/14 42.9 6/20 30.0  
 OLVG, Amsterdam 121/247 49.0 35/77 45.5 68/115 59.1 10/21 47.6 2/14 14.3 6/20 30.0  
 Haaglanden Medisch Centrum, The Hague 50/247 20.2 16/77 20.8 17/115 14.8 3/21 14.3 6/14 42.9 8/20 40.0  
  1. MSM men who have sex with men, IQR interquartile range, NA Not applicable
  2. a p-value for difference between European and Other