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Table 1 Characteristics of the studies that reported cystic echinococcosis (CE) in Iran

From: Epidemiology of echinococcosis in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  First author (year of study) Province Sample size Male Sex N (%) The most affected age group (year) Positive echinococcosis N (%) Diagnostic Methodb The most common infected group (%) Total qualityscore
1 Aslanabadi (2001-2011) [20] Ardabil / East Azerbaijan 59 32 (54.2) ND a 59 (100) CT scan ND 5
2 Mirzanejadasl (2008) [21] Ardabil 1998 14 (7.9) 40-59 184 (9.2) ELISA ND 2
3 Mirzanejadasl (2010) [22] Ardabil 1003 10 (11.2) 40-59 92 (9.2) Ultrasonography, CT scan, ELISA ND 4
4 Heidari (2011) [23] Ardabil 670 4 (33.33) 60-90 12 (1.79) ELISA Farmers (3.17), Ranchmen (3.17), Illiterate people (2.6), consumption of unwashed raw vegetables (3.88) 7
5 Khalili (1998-2007) [24] Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari 144 46 (32) 27-41 144 (100) Clinical and laboratory findings Rural dwellers (65), Housewives (60) 6
6 Yousefi Darani (2000-2001) [25] Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari 2524 56 (4.4) ND 120 (4.8) CIE ND 5
7 Montazeri (1995-2005) [26] East Azerbaijan 383 207 (54) ND 383 (100) Chest X-ray ND 4
8 Montazeri (1995-2005) [26] East Azerbaijan 62 40 (64) ND 62 (100) Chest X-ray ND 4
9 Vahedi (2001-2012) [27] East Azerbaijan 318 135 (42.5) 20-30 318 (100) ND ND 2
10 Ghabouli Mehrabani (2009-2011) [28] East-Azerbaijan 52 25 (48) 40-60 52 (100) ND Rural dwellers (63), Housewives (44.2%), 6
11 Garedaghi (2011) [29] East Azerbaijan 1500 5 (0.83) 30-40 19 (1.28) ELISA Self-employed people (2.8) 8
12 Dadkhah (2011) [30] East Azerbaijan 250 3 (30) 20-40 8 (3.2) IFA Housewives, Illiterate people 3
13 Sadjjadi (1978-1998) [31] Fars 1227 ND ND 1227 (100) Pathology, CCIEP, Ultrasound ND 1
14 Saberi-Firouzi (1994- 1995) [32] Fars 1000 20 (4.5) 15 - 29 50 (5) Ultrasonography, ELISA, CIE Illiterate people (5), Carpet weaver (5.3), contact with dog (5.4) 7
15 Solhjou (2006-2007) [33] Fars 1096 45 (65.2) 46-60 69 (6.3) ELISA Farmers (18.18), Illiterate people (8.18) 8
16 Sarkari (2013-2014) [34] Fars 1068 56 (5.5) > 50 60 (5.6) ELISA Self-employed people (46) 5
17 Aghajanzadeh (1992-2005) [3] Guilan 152 ND ND 152 (100) Chest X-ray, CT scan, Ultrasonography ND 0
18 Mansour-Ghanaei (2000-2010) [35] Guilan 62 38 (61) 40-60 62 (100) Ultrasonography, CT scan, Chest X-ray, Pathology Urban dwellers (66.1), Housewives (40.3), 6
19 Baharsefat (2007) [36] Golestan 1024 20 (1.93) 40-49 46 (4.5) IFA, ELISA Housewives (3.67), Illiterate people (3.72), 5
20 Arbabi (1991) Hamedan 1530 19 (2.9) 60-80 46 (3) IFA, IHA ND 8
21 Ahmadi (1992-2006) [37] Hamedan 179 79 (44.1) 20-39 179 (100) Ultrasonography, CT scan Housewives (47.3), Rural dwellers (57.5) 8
22 Ahmadi (1992-2006) [38] Hamedan 24 10 (42) 40–59 24 (100) Ultrasonography, CT scan Housewives (50), Rural dwellers (54.2) 6
23 Aflaki (2005) [39] Ilam 3000 15 (1) 20-30 37 (1.2) Dot-ELISA/ ELISA Nomads (10.77) 4
24 Arbabi (1993-2000) [40] Isfahan 85 38 (44.7) 20-29 85 (100) ND Housewives (47), Urban dwellers (68.2) 7
25 Arbabi (2006) [40] Isfahan 500 4 (0.9) < 20 12 (2.4) IHA Housewives (5) 7
26 Fahimzad (2001-2013) [41] Isfahan, Tehran, Sistan and Baluchestan, Kurdistan, Kermanshah, Hamedan, Markazi 161 99 (61.5) 6-10 years 161 (100) Pathology, Ultrasonography, Chest X-ray, CT scan, ND 4
27 Esmaeili (2010) [40] Isfahan 361 4 (2.3) 31-45 11 (3.05) ELISA, IFA Illiterate people (4.3), Housewives (6) 7
28 Ilbeigi (2015) [40] Isfahan 635 14 (2.24) 60-69 7 (1.1) ELISA self-employed people (3.05) 4
29 Eftekhari (1991-2000) [42] Kerman 60 31 (51.6) 21-30 60 (100) Radiography, CT scan, Ultrasonography Housewives (69), Rural dwellers (63.3) 6
30 Harandi (2006–2008) [43] Kerman 1062 22 (2.1) 20-39 77 (7.3) Ultrasonography, ELISA Housewives (8.4) 7
31 Moazezi (2008-2009) [44] Kerman 451 4 (4.9) 30-55 37 (8.8) Ultrasonography, ELISA Housewives (9.6), Farmers (9.1) 7
32 Vejdani (2004-2009) [45] Kermanshah 526 141 (48.5) 31-40 291 (55) CT scan, MRI, Ultrasonography, Pathology Urban dwellers (57.7) 4
33 Chalechale (2009-2011) [46] Kermanshah 172 79 (46) 21-40 172 (100) ND ND 3
34 Bagheri (1981–2008) [47] Khorasan Razavi 1024 535 (52.2) ND 1024 (100) IHA, ChestX-ray, CT scan, Bronchoscopy, Ultrasonography Housewives (27.2) 7
35 Ebrahimipour (2001-2008) [48] Khorasan Razavi 400 218 (54.5) 20–29 400 (100) MRI, Ultrasonography, IHA, ELISA, ND 4
36 Andalib Aliabadi (2003-2012) [49] Khorasan Razavi 1342 631 (47) 20-30 1342 (100) Parasitology, Histopathology Housewives, Urban dwellers (71) 6
37 Sadrizadeh (2010-2012) [50] Khorasan Razavi 87 46 (52) 20-30 87 (100) Chest X-ray, CT scan, IFA ND 5
38 Khazaei (2011-2014) [51] Khorasan Razavi 357 161 (45.1) 21-40 357 (100) Radiology, CT scan Housewives (45.8), Rural dwellers (40.3) 7
39 Fotoohi (2013) [52] Khorasan Razavi 100 ND ND 7 (0.07) ELISA ND -2
40 Talaiezadeh (1994-2000) [53] Khuzestan 40 24 (60) 6-10 years 40 (100) Ultrasonography, Chest-X-Ray ND 4
41 Rafiei (2007) [54] Khuzestan 3446 176 (13.7) 0-4 475 (13.8) ELISA Farmers (18.5), Shepherds (15.8) 7
42 Sarkari (1997-2006) [55] Kohkiluyeh and Buyer Ahmad 105 35 (33.33) 30-39 105 (100) ND Housewives (66.7) 6
43 Sarkari (2009) [56] Kohkiluyeh and Buyer Ahmad 500 21 (58.3) 30-39 36 (7.1) ELISA Farmers 6
44 Akhlaghi (2005) [57] Kurdistan 1114 925 (83) 20-40 81 (7.3) IFA Illiterate people 3
45 Hadadian (2006) [58] Kurdistan 1979 5 (0.53) 30-40 22 (1.12) ELISA ND 7
46 Rostami Nejad (2002-2006) [59] Lorestan 64513 17 (43.4) ND 39 (0.06) ND Housewives (51) 6
47 Nayebzadeh (2004-2011) [60] Lorestan 134 57 (42.5) 20-30 134 (100) Pathology, CT scan, Ultrasonography, Radiology, Bronchoscopy ND 4
48 Zibaei (2007) [61] Lorestan 617 57 (60) 20-29 95 (15.4) ELISA Primary school educated (22.7), Farmers (59.3), Rural dwellers (38.9) 7
49 Zibaei (2007- 2011) [61] Lorestan 58 28 (48.3) 20-29 58 (100) ND ND 7
50 Asgari (2013) [62] Markazi 578 13 (2.31) 40-49 20 (3.46) ELISA Farmers (6.67), Ranchmen (6.67), Illiterate people (4.8), Rural dwellers (7) 7
51 Esfandiari (2001-2007) [63] Mazandaran 132 59 (44.7) 21-30 132 (100) ND ND 2
52 Moosazadeh (2009-2014) [64] Mazandaran 41 15 (36.6) 30-49 41 (100) CT scan, MRI, Ultrasonography, Radiology Housewives (58.5) 7
53 Ziaei Hezarjaribi (2013-2014) [65] Mazandaran 600 148 (24.6) 30-60 190 (31.6) ELISA Rural dwellers (25.7), Educated people (25.8) 7
54 Salehi (2009-2011) [66] North Khorasan 24 10 (41.7) 31-40 24 (100) ND Housewives (45.8) 5
55 Rezaei (2002-2013) [67] Qom 82 35 (42.7) 21-30 82 (100) ND Illiterate people (62.2), Housewives (51.3) 6
56 Rakhshanpour (2011-2012) [68] Qom 1564 18 (2.2) 30-60 25 (1.6) ELISA Employees (2.4), Urban dwellers (2.1) 7
57 Sharifi-Mood (1990-2005) [69] Sistan and Baluchestan 49 37 (75.5) ND 49 (100) Chest X-ray, Chest roentgenogram, CT-Scan, ELISA, Rural dwellers (81) 4
58 Moradi (2014) [70] Sistan and Baluchestan 536 1 (0.18) 23 1 (0.18) ELISA self-employed people 7
59 Amini (1984-2004) [71] Tehran 60 28 (46.7) 30-39 60 (100) Ultrasonography, CT scan, Chest X-ray, Housewives (75), Farmer (42.8) 6
60 Nourjah (1986-1990) [72] Tehran 4850 1439 (43.6) 20-29 4850 (100) ND Housewives, Illiterate people (68.3) 5
61 Mirshemirani (1987-2007) [73] Tehran 116 61 (52.6) 9-14 years 116 (100) Radiography, CT scan, Ultrasonography, ELISA, IFA ND 4
62 Mirshemirani (1992-2007) [74] Tehran 72 40 (55.56) 12-14 years 72 (100) Chest X- ray, ELISA, IFA, CT scan, Ultrasonography ND 4
63 Pejhan (1995-2005) [75] Tehran 82 48 (59) ND 82 (100) Chest X-ray, CT scan, Ultrasonography, ND 4
64 Mamishi (1995-2005) [76] Tehran 71,600 18 (58) ND 31 (0.04) Chest X-rays, CT scan, Ultrasonography dwellers of central areas of Iran (58), Children with history of contact with dogs or sheep (52) 6
65 Khalilzadeh (1996-2004) [77] Tehran 11 10 (91) 10-16 years 11 (100) Chest X-ray, CT scan ND 4
66 Mirshemirani (1996-2010) [78] Tehran 100 54 (54) 13-14 100 (100) Sonography, CT scan, ELISA ND 5
67 Sedaghat Gohar (1999) [79] Tehran 1052 12 (4.5) > 60 62 (5.9) IFA Rural dwellers (8.1), Farmers and Ranchmen (16), Illiterate people (8) 7
68 Ahmadi (1999-2009) [80] Tehran 203 86 (42) 21-40 203 (100) Ultrasonography, CT scan, Chest X-ray, Endoscopy, Gastroscopy, MRI, IHA, ELISA, Casoni Housewives (53.5), Urban dwellers (87) 7
69 Mousavi (2000-2010) [81] Tehran 89 39 (44) ND 89 (100) Ultrasonography, CT scan ND 4
70 Pezaeshki (2001-2004) [82] Tehran 78 34 (43.5) 32-40 78 (100) ND ND 3
71 Mahmoudi (2005-2010) [83] Tehran 17 9 (52.9) ND 17 (100) Ultrasonography, CT scan, IFA, Inhabitants of central part of Iran (58.8), 4
72 Farrokhzad (2006) [84] Tehran 437 ND ND 1 (0.22) IFA, ELISA ND 1
73 Akhlaghi (2006-2007) [85] Tehran 1100 ND ND 18 (1.63) Dot-ELISA ND 0
74 Zarif-fard (1999) [86] Western Iran 4138 11 (4.7) 21-40 230 (5.55) ELISA Kurd (6.1) and Lour (5.8) ethnic groups, Hunters (7.4) 6
75 Hajipirloo (2000-2009) [87] West Azerbaijan 294 137 (46.7) 20-30 294 (100) ND Rural dwellers (63.1) 5
76 Fattahi Bafghi (2006-2011) [88] Yazd 26911 8 (66.67) 8-28 and 49-69 12 (0.045) ND ND 3
77 Kohansal (2007-2013) [89] Zanjan 136 62 (45.58) 21–40 136 (100) ND ND 3
  1. aND Not-determined. b CT scan computed tomography, ELISA Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, CIE Counterimmunoelectrophoresis, IFA Indirect fluorescent antibody test, IHA Indirect hemagglutination antibody test, MRI Magnetic resonance imaging, CCIEP Counter-current immunoelectrophoresis