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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of HIV participants at the first TB screening

From: Predicting the risk of pulmonary tuberculosis based on the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio at TB screening in HIV-infected individuals

VariablesCategoryTotal cases of TB screeningTB screeninga positive for TBTB screening negative for TBp-value
N = 1118N = 54N = 1064
Age (years)Under 30226 (20.2%)9 (16.7%)217 (20.4%)0.71
30–39506 (45.3%)24 (44.4%)482 (45.3%) 
Over 40386 (34.5%)21 (38.9%)365 (34.3%) 
SexMale510 (45.6%)37 (68.5%)473 (44.4%)0.002
Female604 (54.0%)17 (31.5%)587 (55.2%) 
Missing data4 (0.4%)4 (0.4%) 
EthnicityThai782 (69.9%)34 (63.0%)748 (70.3%)0.50
Hill tribe211 (18.9%)13 (24.0%)198 (18.6%) 
Others125 (11.2%)7 (13.0%)118 (11.1%) 
Year of DCC registration2002–2006489 (43.7%)22 (40.7%)467 (43.9%)0.48
2007–2011500 (44.7%)23 (42.6%)477 (44.8%) 
2012–2015129 (11.6%)9 (16.7%)120 (11.3%) 
CD4 (/mm3)< 50262 (23.4%)20 (37.0%)242 (22.7%)< 0.001
50–199292 (26.1%)23 (42.6%)269 (25.3%) 
200564 (50.5%)11 (20.4%)553 (52.0%) 
ARTNo633 (56.6%)41 (75.9%)592 (55.6%)0.008
Past/Current335 (30.0%)5 (9.3%)330 (31.0%) 
Start during follow-up130 (11.6%)7 (13.0%)123 (11.6%) 
Missing data20 (1.8%)1 (1.8%)19 (1.8%) 
TST
(Positive: > 5 mm)
Negative981 (87.7%)36 (66.7%)945 (88.8%)< 0.001
Positive94 (8.4%)15 (27.8%)79 (7.4%) 
Not tested43 (3.9%)3 (5.6%)40 (3.8%) 
Abnormal chest X rayNo831 (74.3%)23 (42.6%)808 (75.9%)< 0.001
Yes281 (25.1%)31 (57.4%)250 (23.5%) 
No tested6 (0.5%)6 (0.6%) 
TB symptomsbNo693 (62.0%)13 (24.1%)680 (63.9%)< 0.001
At least one symptom425 (38.0%)41 (75.9%)384 (36.1%) 
Whole blood cell counts (/mm3)Median (IQR)5700 (4400–7100)5970 (4800–7500)5700 (4400–7100)0.30
Lymphocyte counts (/mm3)Median (IQR)1733.7 (1176.7–2324.7)1170.5 (752.1–1596.7)1777.0 (1196.2–2346.8)< 0.001
Monocyte counts (/mm3)Median (IQR)343.1 (234.5–485.9)374.0 (220.0–500.9)341.5 (235.2–483.7)0.53
Neutrophil counts (/mm3)Median (IQR)2877.9 (2160.0–3939.0)3585.9 (2880.0–5079.6)2827.3 (2143.6–3884.8)< 0.001
NL ratioMedian (IQR)1.67 (1.16–2.64)3.27 (1.99–5.41)1.66 (1.14–2.54)< 0.001
  1. TB Tuberculosis, ART Anti-retroviral treatment, TST Tuberculin skin test, IQR Interquartile range, NL Neutrophil to lymphocyte.
  2. aTB screening was conducted by sputum acid-fast bacilli (AFB) positive, clinical symptoms, chest X-ray, TST, and sputum culture test
  3. bTB symptoms include cough, night sweats, fever, weight loss, and hemoptysis within 4 weeks
  4. p-values were calculated using the chi-square test for categorical variables and Wilcoxon rank-sum test for continuous variables