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Table 3 Comparative analysis of standard and isotonic scans of TB mortality, Londrina, Brazil (2008–2015)

From: Detection of risk clusters for deaths due to tuberculosis specifically in areas of southern Brazil where the disease was supposedly a non-problem

Rate High Low
Pop. at risk (%) 10 30 50 10 30 50
No. census sectors Standard 32 153 153 63 216 217
Isotonic 60 149 281 63 216 261
Pop. of cluster Standard 22993 102433 102433 53032 143762 144328
Isotonic 47193 112265 203830 53032 143762 172652
Annual cases/100,000 Standard 6.4 3.4 3.4 0 0.4 0.4
Isotonic 3.7 3.0 2.3 0 0.4 0.6
No. cases Standard 12 29 29 0 5 5
Isotonic 14 27 38 0 5 8
Expected cases Standard 2.9 13.3 13.3 6 18.3 18.4
Isotonic 5.9 14 25.8 6.1 18.3 22
Radius (km) Standard 1.4 2.4 2.4 1.6 5.9 6.0
Isotonic 1.8 2.9 3.9 1.6 5.9 6.3
LLRa Standard 8.7 9.7 9.7 6.4 8.7 8.7
Isotonic 9.6 12.3 12.7 6.4 9.5 9.9
p-value Standard 0.05 0.02** 0.03** 0.05 0.04** 0.04**
Isotonic 0.04** 0.01** < 0.01** 0.05 0.02** 0.02**
  1. aLog likelihood ratio; **p < 0.05