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Table 1 Test of proportional hazard (PH) assumption using Schoenfeld residuals from second-line ART among adults in Amhara Region (February 2008–April 2016)

From: Incidence and predictors of second-line antiretroviral treatment failure among adults living with HIV in Amhara region: a multi-centered retrospective follow-up study

Variables Correlation Chi-square P-value
Age
 15–24 Reference   
 25–34 −0.016 0.069 0.791
 35–44 −0.004 0.004 0.947
  ≥ 45 − 0.055 0.805 0.369
Gender
 Female Reference   
 male 0.011 0.032 0.857
BMI(kg/m2)
  < 18.5 −0.106 2.900 0.089
 18.5–24.99 Reference   
  > 25 0.037 0.327 0.567
CD4 count at switch
  ≥ 100 cells/mm3 Reference   
  < 100 cells/mm3 −0.089 2.098 0.147
Regimen modification
 Yes Reference   
 No 0.002 0.001 0.973
ART adherence
 Good Reference   
 Fair 0.066 1.132 0.287
 Poor 0.079 1.612 0.204
WHO clinical stage
 I Reference   
 II 0.045 0.519 0.471
 III 0.052 0.728 0.393
 IV 0.079 1.679 0.195
Isoniazid Preventive Therapy (INH) given
 Yes Reference   
 No 0.013 0.044 0.833
Functional status at switch
 Working Reference   
 Ambulatory −0.056 0.867 0.352
 bedridden −0.023 0.128 0.719
Opportunistic Infections (OI)
 Yes Reference   
 No 0.093 2.290 0.130
Second-line regimen
 ABC-ddI-LPV/r Reference   
 TDF-3TC-LPV/r −0.058 0.906 0.341
 AZT-3TC-LPV/r 0.017 0.072 0.788
 Othersa −0.077 1.512 0.219
  1. a = (ABC-ddI-NFV, AZT-3TC-ATV/r, TDF-3TC-ATV/r, ABC-3TC-LPV/r, and ABC-3TC-ATV/r)