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Table 2 Assessment of patient’s characteristics and risk factors that could be associated with multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clustering of cases, considering the cases reported between 2014 and 2017

From: A nationwide study of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Portugal 2014–2017 using epidemiological and molecular clustering analyses

MDR-TB patient
Characteristic
Unknown Unique
(n = 25)
Clustered
(n = 42)
Univariate analysis
n (%) n (%) OR (95% CI) p-value
Age group < 45 years old 0 16 (64.0) 21 (50.0) Ref 0.267
≥45 years old 9 (36.0) 21 (50.0) 1.78 (0.64–6.91)
Gender Female 0 7 (28.0) 9 (21.4) Ref 0.543
Male 18 (72.0) 33 (78.6) 1.43 (0.46–4.47)
Country of origin Foreign-born 1 12 (50.0) 9 (21.4) Ref 0.019
Native 12 (50.0) 33 (78.6) 3.67 (1.24–10.88)
HIV status Negative 4 21 (87.5) 27 (69.2) Ref 0.109
Positive 3 (12.5) 12 (30.8) 3.11 (0.78–12.46)
Alcohol abuse No 6 22 (95.7) 26 (68.4) Ref 0.032
Yes 1 (4.3) 12 (31.6) 10.15 (1.22–84.39)
Injectable drug use No 8 20 (87.0) 29 (80.6) Ref 0.525
Yes 3 (13.0) 7 (19.4) 1.61 (0.37–6.98)
TB treatment history Never treated 4 15 (62.5) 25 (64.1) Ref 0.898
Previously treated 9 (37.5) 14 (35.9) 0.93 (0.33–2.68)
Site of disease Pulmonary 4 24 (42.9) 32 (57.1) n/a n/a
Extra-pulmonary 0 (0.0) 7 (100.0)
  1. CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio, Ref reference
  2. Statistically significant values are indicated in bold