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Table 1 Summary of studies included in the analysis

From: Diversity of infectious aetiologies of acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses in south and Southeast Asia: a systematic review

First author, year and referenceCountryDesign studyStudy durationIn patients/ outpatientsNumber of patientsAge rangeAdult/Children onlySexDuration of fever (mean duration)
Abhilash et al., 2016 [20]IndiaProspective observational study12 monthsOPD + ED1258> 15 yearsAdults + childrenM = 680
F = 568
3–14 days
Ahmad et al., 2016 [44]IndiaRetrospective observational study12 monthsIP298> 2 yearsAdults + childrenNot specifiedAUFI
Andrews et al., 2014 [45]IndiaRetrospective and Patient admitted prospective study2 monthsIP369> 13 yearsAdultsF = 118
M = 251
AUFI
Arora et al., 2014 [46]IndiaRetrospective study24 monthsIP + OPD38,635All ages groupsAdult + ChildrenNot specifiedAUF
Capeding et al., 2013 [11]Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and VietnamActive fever surveillance, cohort study9.8 monthsCommunity based2892–14 yearsChildrenNot specified< 14 days
Chheng et al., 2013 [42]CambodiaProspective study12 monthsIP1225< 16 yearsChildrenM = 668
F = 557
< 28 days
Chikkaveerariah et al., 2016 [47]IndiaProspective observational study24 monthsIP150> 14 yearsAdultsF = 69
M = 81
AUFI
Chrispal et al., 2010 [1]IndiaProspective observational study12 monthsIP398> 16 years
Mean 39.5
AdultsM = 239
F = 159
5–21 days
Das et al., 2015 [48]IndiaCross-sectional study6 monthsIP205All agesAdults + ChildrenF = 89
M = 116
Acute febrile illness
Ellis et al., 2006 [49]ThailandProspective study33 monthsIP + OPD61320–87 yearsAdultsM = 325
F = 288
Fever over previous 48 h and fever longer than 48 h cause of fever not yet known
Gopalakrishnan et al., 2013 [21]IndiaProspective observational18 monthsIP403> 16 yearsAdultsM = 264
F = 139
5–14 days
Joshi et al., 2008 [22]IndiaRetrospective review of electronic discharge summaries6 monthsIP1197> 12 yearsAdultsM = 640
F = 557
< 14 days
Kammili et al., 2013 [23]IndiaProspective descriptive hospital based study2 monthsIP100All agesBoth children and adultsNot specified> 24 h
Kashinkunti et al., 2013 [37]IndiaProspective observationalNot specifiedIP100> 16 yearsAdultsM = 58
F = 42
< 15 days
Kasper et al., 2012 [24]CambodiaFever surveillance studyNot specifiedOPD9997> 2 years
Mean 19.6
Median 16.9
Adults and childrenM = 5398
F = 4599
< 10 days
Kumar et al., 2008 [39]IndiaProspective study12 monthsOPD2986 months −12 yearsChildrenM = 117
F = 181
< 15 days
Laoprasopwattana et al., 2012 [25]ThailandProspective cohort study4 monthsIP + OPD501 month −15 yearsChildrenNot specified< 7 days
Leelarasamee et at., 2004 [2]ThailandProspective epidemiological study36 monthsOPD1137> 2 yearsAdults + ChildrenNot specified< 1 day
Mayxay et al., 2013 [26]LaosProspective study30 monthsIP + OPD19385–49
median 19
Adults/childrenM = 1124
F = 814
< 8 days
McGready et al., 2010 [50]ThailandProspective cohort study28 monthsIP409> 15 yearsPregnant females onlyM = 467
F = 409
Any fever
Mittal et al., 2015 [51]IndiaRetrospective observational study12 monthsIP + OPD2547> 18 yearsAdultsF = 884
M = 1663
AUFI
Murdoch et al., 2004 [36]NepalProspective study3 monthsIP + OPD876> 14 years
Median 27
AdultsF = 40924 h
Oishr et al., 2006 [27]PhilippinesProspective study24 monthsIP5032–17 yearsChildrenM = 298
F = 205
< 5 days
Phuong et al., 2006 [28]VietnamProspective study12 monthsOPD2096All agesBoth children and adultsM = 1229
F = 865
< 14 days
Pradutkanchana et al., 2003 [7]ThailandProspective study1 monthIP180Less than 15 yearsChildrenNot specified< 21 days
Punjabi et al., 2012 [43]IndonesiaProspective study27 monthsIP2261–80 yearsAdults and childrenM = 127
F = 99
1–30 days
Rafizah et al., 2012 [52]MalaysiaHospital-based cross sectional study6 monthsIP999> 18 yearsAdultsF = 543
M = 456
Acute fever
Rani et al., 2016 [53]IndiaRetrospective study6 MonthsIP + OPD200All agesAdults + childrenF = 82
M = 118
Acute febrile illness
Ray et al., 2012 [29]IndiaProspective descriptive study12 monthsIP + OPD540All age groupsBoth children and adultsM = 329
F = 211
< 7 days
Reller et al., 2011 [31]Sri LankaProspective study8 monthsIP + OPD773> 2 yearsBoth children and adultsM = 463
F = 310
< 7 days
Reller et al., 2012 [30]Sri LankaProspective study8 monthsIP + OPD859> 2 yearsBoth children and adultsM = 526
F = 333
< 7 days
Sabchareon et al., 2012 [54]ThailandProspective cohort study48 monthsCommunity based + IP + OPD34013–15 yearsChildrenM = 1733
F = 1668
All documented fever with school absenteeism
Suttinont et al., 2006 [12]ThailandProspective observational study in 5 hospitals12 monthsIP845> 15 years
Median 38
AdultsM = 661
F = 184
< 15 days
Thompson et al., 2015 [56]NepalProspective study38 monthsIP + OPD627> 2 yearsAdults + childrenNot specifiedUFI
Zaki et al., 2010 [41]IndiaProspective observational study4 monthsIP6021 month −12 yearsChildrenNot specified< 21 days
Kingston et al., 2018 [38]BangladeshProspective study12 monthsIP416≥12 yearsAdultsNot specified< 21 days
Raina et al., 2018 [32]IndiaCohort study2 monthsIP1164> 18 yearsAdultsNot specified≤14 days
Shelke et al., 2017 [33]IndiaProspective cross-sectional18 monthsIP270All agesAdults + childrenM = 138
F = 132
< 14 days
Gautam et al., 2019 [57]NepalCross-sectional study12 monthsIP1585> 1 yearAdult + childrenM = 728
F = 757
> 4 days
Bodinayake et al., 2018 [35]Sri LankaProspective study12 monthsIP976≥1 yearsAdults + childrenM = 628
F = 348
≤3 days
Salagre et al., 2017 [55]IndiaProspective observational study2 monthsIP276> 13 yearsAdultsM = 187
F = 89
AFI
Andrews et al., 2018 [34]IndiaProspective observational study12 monthsIP1324> 13 yearsAdultsM = 837
F = 487
< 14 days
Wangrangsimakul et al., 2018 [40]ThailandProspective observational study27 monthsIP200≥15 yearsAdultsM = 114
F = 86
< 21 days
  1. ED Emergency department, IP Inpatients, OPD Outpatient department, M Males, F Females