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Table 1 Comparison of HPV detection between genital and oral samples and among genital samples (n = 198)

From: Low concordance of oral and genital HPV infection among male patients with sexually transmitted infections in Vietnam

  No. of samples with      
Samples compared Indicated paired resultsa % Agreement Cohen’s Kappa McNemar
  +/+ –/– +/– –/+ Overall Positive Negative (95% CI) P value
Between genital and oral
 Genital/oral 5 129 53 11 67.7 13.5 80.1 0.01 (−0.09–0.12) < 0.01
 Penile/oral 5 136 46 11 71.2 14.9 82.7 0.03 (−0.07–0.16) < 0.01
 Urethral/oral 1 167 15 15 84.8 6.3 91.8 −0.02 (−0.11–0.13) 1.00
 Urinary/oral 1 174 8 15 88.4 8.0 93.8 0.02 (−0.08–0.19) 0.21
Among genitals
 Penile/urethral 10 141 41 6 76.3 29.9 85.7 0.20 (0.06–0.35) < 0.01
 Penile/urinary 8 146 43 1 77.8 26.7 86.9 0.21 (0.09–0.34) < 0.01
 Urethral/urinary 8 181 8 1 95.5 64.0 97.6 0.62 (0.34–0.83) 0.04
  1. Cohen’s Kappa: assessment of the concordance of HPV infection between paired samples
  2. McNemar test: assessment of the difference in the prevalence of HPV infection between paired samples
  3. +, presence of any HPV genotype; –, absence of all HPV genotypes; CI: confidence interval
  4. aThe result indicated on either side of each slash corresponds to the type listed in the same position in the first column