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Table 2 Pooled likelihood ratios of sputum Gram stain in community-acquired pneumonia

From: Usefulness of sputum gram stain for etiologic diagnosis in community-acquired pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Microorganism Positive LR (95% CI) Negative LR (95% CI)
S. pneumoniae 4.60 (2.72–7.79) 0.39 (0.29–0.52)
H. influenzae 21.08 (8.32–53.40) 0.23 (0.13–0.41)
S. aureus 16.27 (2.48–106.86) 0.40 (0.30–0.56)
Gram-negative bacilli 37.49 (8.83–159.16) 0.45 (0.17–1.17)
  1. Abbreviations: LR likelihood ratio, CI confidence interval
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