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Table 3 Data extraction of findings (except where specified, results are presented as intervention versus control group

From: Effects of physical exercises on inflammatory biomarkers and cardiopulmonary function in patients living with HIV: a systematic review with meta-analysis

Study Outcome [Int. (Mean ± SD) vs Cont (Mean ± SD); CI (…); p = …; d = …]
Aweto et al. [66] Cardiopulmonary function
Baseline Forced Expiratory Volume (1) (FEV1): [Int. (1.32 ± 0.62) vs Cont. (1.23 ± 0.52); p = 0.650]
Post-int. Forced Expiratory Volume (1) (FEV1): [Int. (1.98 ± 0.55) vs Cont. (1.20 ± 0.53); p = 0.001]
Bonato et al. [59] Inflammatory biomarker High sensitive C-reactive protein
Baseline [Walk group (1.9 ± NS) vs Walk Strength group (3.1 ± NS); p = NS]
post-int. [Walk group (0.9 ± NS) vs Walk Strength (1.8 ± NS); p = NS]
Dolan et al. [36] Cardiopulmonary function
Baseline VO2 max [Int. (16.9 ± 1.0) vs Cont. (15.3 ± 1.1); p = 0.3]
Post-int. Vo2 max: [int. (1.5 ± 0.8) vs Cont. (−2.5 ± 1.6); p < 0.001; d = NS)]
Dudgeon et al. [60] Inflammatory biomarkers
Baseline IL-6: [MOD. (3.6 ± 1.0) vs Cont. (3.6 ± 1.0); p = NS] IL-1β: [MOD. (5.9 ± 0.5) vs Cont. (6.2 ± 0.6); p = NS]
Post-int. IL-6: [MOD. (3.1 ± 0.6) vs Cont. (6.1 ± 2.0); p = NS] IL-1β: [MOD. (7.5 ± 1.7) vs Cont. (6.1 ± 0.5); p = NS]
Dudgeon et al. [61] Inflammatory biomarkers
Change after intervention IL-6 [(2.7 ± 0.27);p = NS] IL-1β: [(3.8 ± 0.07); p = NS]
sTNFrII: [(2.8 ± 1.94); p = 0.05 at 30-mins for LOW group and p = 0.05 at MOD group]
Ezema et al. [67] Cardiopulmonary function
Baseline VO2 max [Int. (23.00 ± 2.54) vs Cont. (24.00 ± 2.54); p = 0.878]
Post-int. VO2 max: [int. (30.87 ± 4.37) vs Cont. (23.87 ± 2.65); p < 0.000; d = NS)]
Farinatti et al. [68] Cardiopulmonary function
Baseline Slope for heart rate-workload relationship α [Int. (1.47 ± 0.4) vs Cont. (1.5 ± 0.3); p = NS]
Slope for heart rate-workload relationship α [Int. (1.18 ± 0.2) vs Cont. (1.67 ± 0.5); p = NS
After Intercept for heart rate-workload relationshipbpm [Int. (76.5 ± 9.4) vs Cont. (78.5 ± 8.9); p = NS]
Intercept for heart rate-workload relationshipbpm [Int. (67.4 ± 8.2) vs Cont. (76.4 ± 7.0); p = NS]
For slope and Intercept, p < 0.05)
Hand et al. [69] Cardiopulmonary function
Baseline VO2 peak [EX. (31.6 ± 2.1) vs Cont. (29.4 ± 0.3); p = NS]
After VO2 peak [EX. (39.9 ± 1.9) vs Cont. (29.4 ± 2.7); p < 0.01]
Mangona et al. [70] Cardiopulmonary function
Baseline VO2 peak [FEG (33.2 ± 5.5) vs Cont. (33.0 ± 5.5); p = NS]
VO2 peak [PEG. (31.3 ± 9.1) vs Cont. (33.0 ± 5.5); p = NS]
After VO2 peak [FEG] (31.8 ± 7.1) vs Cont. (33.2 ± 3.9); P = 0.008]
VO2 peak [PEG. (34.8 ± 9.9) vs Cont. (33.2 ± 3.9); p = 0.010]
Mcdermott et al. [65] Cardiopulmonary function
Baseline VO2 max [Int. (33.2 ± 9.6) vs Cont. (36.7 ± 8.6.); p = 0.24]
Post-int. Vo2 max [int. (37.4 ± 8.9) vs Cont. (39.0 ± 9.6);p = 0.85; d = NS)]
Mutimura et al. [77] Cardiopulmonary function
Change comparison between the groups VO2 peak [(4.7+  0.56); p = < 0.0001)
Patil et al. [73] Cardiopulmonary function
Baseline VO2 max [Int. (31.37 ± 2) vs Cont. (29.5 ± 2); p = NS]
Post-int. Vo2 max: [int. (33.27 ± 2) vs Cont. (29.6 ± 2); p = 0.001; d = NS)]
Pedro et al. [76] Cardiopulmonary function
Baseline VO2 peak [Int. (26.3 ± 4.7) vs Cont. (26.3 ± 8.9); p = 0.0001]
VO2 sub [Int. (12.6 ± 2.8) vs Cont. (12.7 ± 2.9); p = NS]
Vpeak [Int. (7.2 ± 0.9) vs Cont. (6.8 ± 1.5); p = NS]
HR5min[Int.116 ± 21) vs Cont. (118 ± 17); p = NS]
Post-int. VO2 peak: [int. (31.6 ± 5.6) vs Cont. (27.6 ± 7.6); p ≤ 0.05; ES = 0.55d = NS)]
VO2 sub [Int. (13.7 ± 3.1) vs Cont. (15.6 ± 3.1); p = NS; ES = − 0.57, d = NS]
Vpeak [Int. (8.4 ± 1.2) vs Cont. (7.0 ± 1.7); p ≤ 0.05; ES = 0.81]
HR5min[Int.105 ± 21) vs Cont. (113 ± 14); p ≤ 0.05; ES = − 0.43]
Pedro et al. [62] Inflammatory biomarkers
Baseline IL-4[Int. (11.4 ± 5.1) vs Cont. (11.0 ± 5.1); p < 0.05]
IL-5 [Int. (1.4 ± 0.4) vs Cont. (1.6 ± 0.9); p < 0.05]
IL-10 [Int.(7.3 ± 0.6) vs Cont. (7.3 ± 1.0); p < 0.05]
IL-8[Int.8.0 ± 4.4) vs Cont. (7.1 ± 5.1); p < 0.05]
Post-int. IL-4[Int. (9.7 ± 6.3) vs Cont. (13.8 ± 8.3); p > 0.05; ES = − 0.60]
IL-5 [Int. (1.3 ± 0.6) vs Cont. (2.4 ± 2.1); p > 0.05; ES = − 0.68]
IL-10 [Int.(7.1 ± 0.4) vs Cont. (7.3 ± 1.0); p > 0.05; ES = − 0.79
IL-8[Int.5.4 ± 2.3) vs Cont. (8.1 ± 6.0); p < 0.03; ES = − 0.87]
Perna et al. [72] Cardiopulmonary function
Baseline VO2 peak: [Compliant (28.7 ± 7.5) vs control (28.3 ± 9.6); p = NS]
VO2 peak: [Compliant (28.7 ± 7.5) vs non-compliant (25.4 ± 9.1); p = NS]
O2 pulse [Compliant (11.7 ± 3.4) vs control (12.3 ± 3.2); p = NS]
O2 pulse [Compliant (11.7 ± 3.4) vs non-compliant (13.0 ± 2.6); p = NS]
Tidal Volume [Compliant (2.0 ± 0.6) vs control (12.3 ± 3.2); p = NS]
Tidal Volume [Compliant (2.0 ± 0.6) vs non-compliant (13.0 ± 2.6); p = NS]
Post-int. VO2 peak: [Compliant (32.2 ± 7.2) vs control (26.5 ± 8.4); p < 0.01]
VO2 peak: [Compliant (32.2 ± 7.2) vs non-compliant (25.4 ± 8.8); p = NS]
O2 pulse [Compliant (13.0 ± 3.1) vs control (11.4 ± 2.8); p < 0.01]
O2 pulse [Compliant (13.0 ± 3.1) vs non-compliant (13.4 ± 2.5); p = NS]
Tidal Volume [Compliant (2.2 ± 0.6) vs control (2.0 ± 0.7); p < 0.01]
Tidal Volume [Compliant (2.2 ± 0.6) vs non-compliant (2.0 ± 0.7); p = NS]
Roos et al. [63] Inflammatory biomarkers
Baseline hs-CRP [Int. (8.58 ± 1.29) vs Cont. (5.45 ± 1.02); p ≥ 0.05]
At 6 months hs-CRP [Int. (− 0.43 ± 1.04) vs Cont. (0.57 ± 0.60); p = 0.08]
At 12 months hs-CRP [Int. (0.31 ± 1.29) vs Cont. (0.21 ± 0.59); p = 0.08;d = NS]
Terry et al. [74] Cardiopulmonary function
Baseline VO2 peak [Diet/Exer (32 ± 5) vs Diet only (34 ± 7); p > 0.05]
After VO2 peak [Diet/Exer (40 ± 5) vs Diet only (35 ± 8); p = 0.001]
Smith et al. [71] Cardiopulmonary function
Baseline FEV1 [Int. (4.0 ± 0.6) vs Cont. (3.6 ± 0.9); p = NS]
VO2 max [Int. (34.9 ± 5.7) vs Cont. (31.0 ± 55.9); p = NS]
After FEV1[Int (4.1 ± 0.8) vs Cont. (31.0 ± 5.9); P = 0.32]
VO2 max [Int. (37.5 ± 6.1) vs Cont. (32.0 ± 6.9); p = 0.09]
Stringer et al. [75] Cardiopulmonary function
%, pre – post WR max [MOD (179 ± 21) vs Cont. (166 ± 29); p < 0.01]
WR max [HEAVY. (162 ± 10) vs Cont. (166 ± 29); p < 0.01]
VO2 max [MOD 2.2 ± 0.2) vs Cont. (2.0 ± 0.3); P = 0.32]
VO2 max [HEAVY (1.9 ± 0.1) vs Cont. (2.0 ± 0.3); p = 0.01]
Vingren et al. [64] Inflammatory biomarkers
Baseline WR max [MOD (4.9 ± 3) vs Cont. (− 9 ± 5); p < 0.01]
WR max [HEAVY. (21 ± 15) vs Cont. (− 9 ± 5); p < 0.01]
VO2 max [MOD (− 0.1 ± 0.1) vs Cont. (− 0.2 ± 0.1); P = 0.32]
VO2 max [HEAVY (0.2 ± 0.1) vs Cont. (− 0.2 ± 0.1); p = 0.01
IL-1β [MOD. (0.2 ± 0.1) vs Cont. (0.3 ± 0.4); p = NS]
IL-2 [MOD. (2.6 ± 1.7) vs Cont. (4.8 ± 8.1); p = NS]
IL-4 [MOD.(16.0 ± 12.3) vs Cont. (17.7 ± 15.8); p = NS]
IL-6[MOD.(3.4 ± 1.3) vs Cont. (2.4 ± 0.9); p = NS]
IL-10 [MOD.(114.9 ± 64.8) vs Cont. (59.3 ± 16.0); p = NS]
IFN-ϒ[MOD.(14.2 ± 16.1) vs Cont. (10.5 ± 8.8); p = NS]
TNF-α [MOD.(16.4 ± 9.6) vs Cont. (10.3 ± 5.4); p = NS]
Post-int. IL-1β[MOD. (2.6 ± 1.7) vs Cont. (4.8 ± 8.1); p = NS]
IL-2 [MOD. (2.4 ± 2.0) vs Cont. (4.6 ± 7.6); p = NS]
IL-4 [MOD.(14.0 ± 10.0) vs Cont. (17.7 ± 15.8); p = NS]
IL-6[MOD.(3.9 ± 1.8) vs Cont. (2.7 ± 1.3); p = NS]
IL-10 [MOD.(108.5 ± 67.0) vs Cont. (58.2 ± 17.8); p = NS]
IFN-ϒ[MOD.(11.4 ± 2.2) vs Cont. (10.3 ± 8.8); p = NS]
TNF-α [MOD.(15.4 ± 8.0) vs Cont. (9.9 ± 3.7); p = NS]
Zanetti et al. [44] Inflammatory biomarkers
(pre- post) IL-1β[NLRT (−1.1 ± 1.6) vs Cont. (0.19 ± 0.44); p < 0.0001]
IL-6 [NLRT (− 2.3 ± 0.4) vs Cont. (0.09 ± 0.3); p < 0.0001]
IL-8[NLRT (− 5.5 ± 3.4) vs Cont. (− 0.15 ± 2.3); p < 0.0001]
IL-10[NLRT (1 ± 0.4) vs Cont.(− 0.05 ± 1.3); p < 0.0001]
TNF-α [NLRT (− 5.72 ± 2.7) vs Cont.(1.33 ± 0.3); p < 0.0001]
Zanetti et al. [8] Inflammatory biomarkers
(pre- post) CRP [(mean + S.D) = NS; p = (p = .005)]