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Table 4 Factors associated to lymphedema and hydrocele according to severity of disease

From: The social, physical and economic impact of lymphedema and hydrocele: a matched cross-sectional study in rural Nigeria

Characteristics Low severity (N = 36) High severity (N = 16) OR (95%CI) P-value
Sex
 Male 25 (48.08%) 11 (21.15%) 1  
 Female 11 (25.15%) 5 (9.62%) 1.03 (0.23–4.27) 1
LGA
 Aguata 18 (34. 62%) 12 (23.08%) 1  
 Njikoka 18 (34.62%) 4 (7.69%) 1.55 (0.40–6.05) 0.558
Age
 21–30 3 (5.77%) 0 (0.00%) 1  
 31–40 4 (7.69%) 4 (7.69%) Inf (0.24 – Inf) 0.236
 41–50 9 (17.31%) 5 (9.62%) Inf (0.17 – Inf) 0.514
 51–60 8 (15.38%) 3 (5.77%) Inf (0.10 – Inf) 1
  > 60 12 (23.08%) 4 (7.69%) Inf (0.10 – Inf) 1
Marital status
 Married 27 (51.92%) 13 (25.00%) 1  
 Divorced 2 (3.85) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00–12.07) 1
 Never married 7 (13.46%) 3 (5.77) 0.89 (0.13–4.76) 1
Occupational level
 Unskilled 28 (53.85%) 16 (30.77%) 1  
 No work 5 (9.62%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00–2.19) 0.158
 Skilled 3 (5.77%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00–4.70) 0.541
Educational level
 Primary education 20 (38.46%) 6 (11.54%) 1  
 No formal education 6 (11.54%) 3 (5.77%) 1.64 (0.20–11.10) 0.665
 Secondary education 7 (13.46%) 6 (11.54%) 2.77 (0.54–14.77) 0.164
 Tertiary education 3 (5.77%) 1 (1.92%) 1.11 (0.02–17.13) 1
Mobility
 No problem 17 (32.69%) 3 (5.77%) 1  
 Mild problem 8 (15.38%) 5 (9.62%) 3.40 (0.51–27.64) 0.213
 Moderate problem 2 (3.85%) 1 (1.92%) 2.67 (0.04–69.42) 0.453
 Severe problem 9 (17.31%) 7 (13.46%) 4.22 (0.74–31.62) 0.073
Self-care
 No problem 28 (53.85%) 7 (13.46%) 1  
 Difficulty in self-care 3 (5.77%) 4 (7.69%) 5.07 (0.69–43.25) 0.063
 Only essential needs are met 2 (3.85%) 1 (1.92%) 1.96 (0.03–42.95) 0.519
 Require someone to help for care 2 (3.85%) 4 (7.69%) 7.48 (0.88–98.74) 0.035
 Unable to take care of self 1 (1.92%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00–161.18) 1
Usual activity
 No problem 31 (59.62%) 7 (13.46%) 1  
 Usual activity performed with difficulty 2 (3.85%) 7 (13.46%) 14.30 (2.14–169.67) 0.001
 Only essential activities performed 3 (5.77%) 1 (1.92%) 1.46 (0.02–21.68) 1
 No activity at all 0 (0.00%) 1 (1.92%) Inf (0.10 – Inf) 0.205
Pain and discomfort
 No pain 0 (0.00%) 1 (1.92%) 1  
 Mild pain, without self-treatment 18 (34.62%) 2 (3.85%) 0 (0.00–6.50) 0.143
 Mild pain, with self-treatment 3 (5.77%) 4 (7.69%) 0 (0.00–64.94) 1
 Compelled to rest due to pain 15 (28.85%) 9 (17.31%) 0 (0.00–26.00) 0.4
Pain frequency
 No pain 0 (0.00%) 1 (1.92%) 1  
 Weekly 5 (9.62%) 4 (7.69%) 0 (0.00–39.00) 1
 Monthly 19 (36.54%) 5 (9.62%) 0 (0.00–12.31) 0.24
 Daily 10 (19.23%) 4 (7.69%) 0 (0.00–19.50) 0.333
 Constant 2 (3.85%) 2 (3.85%) 0 (0.00–58.45) 1
Pain severity
 No pain 0 (0.00%) 1 (1.92%) 1  
 Mild 3 (5.77%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00–13.00) 0.250
 Medium 16 (30.77%) 2 (3.85%) 0 (0.00–7.31) 0.158
 Severe 17 (32.69%) 13 (25.00%) 0 (0.00–32.12) 0.452
Cognition
 No problem 36 (69.23%) 10 (19.23%) 1  
 Reduced concentration, memory affected 0 (0.00%) 4 (7.69%) Inf (1.96 – Inf) 0.004
 Loss of concentration 0 (0.00%) 2 (3.85%) Inf (0.59 – Inf) 0.059
Anxiety
 No anxiety 6 (11.54%) 0 (0.00%) 1  
 Does not interfere with performance 9 (17.31%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00 – Inf) 1
 Leads to low performance and irritating tendency 19 (36.54%) 3 (5.77%) Inf (0.11 – Inf) 1
 No performance and total detachment 2 (3.85%) 11 (21.15%) Inf (3.01 – Inf) 0.001
 Suicidal tendency 0 (0.00%) 2 (3.85%) Inf (0.79 – Inf) 0.036
Sleep problems
 No sleep problem 19 (36.54%) 3 (5.77%) 1  
 Sleep problem rarely 7 (13.46%) 2 (3.85%) 1.77 (0.12–19.24) 0.612
 Sleep problem occasionally 3 (5.77%) 5 (9.62%) 9.46 (1.17–102.33) 0.016
 Sleep problem often 3 (5.77%) 3 (5.77%) 5.79 (0.53–70.71) 0.091
 Cannot sleep most nights 4 (7.69%) 3 (5.77%) 4.44 (0.43–48.01) 0.132
Social participation
 No problem with social participation 20 (38.46%) 6 (11.54%) 1  
 Avoid social activities as far as possible 11 (21.15%) 8 (15.38%) 2.37 (0.56–10.78) 0.206
 Total avoidance of social activities 5 (9.62%) 2 (3.85%) 1.32 (0.10–11.14) 1
Work hours
  > 8 h 13 (25.00%) 7 (13.46%) 1  
 5–8 h 3 (5.77%) 2 (3.85%) 1.23 (0.08–13.65) 1
 1–4 h 10 (19.23%) 1 (1.92%) 0.19 (0.003–1.94) 0.203
 No work 2 (3.85%) 3 (5.77%) 2.67 (0.24–39.28) 0.358
 Seasonal work 2 (3.85%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0.00–11.69) 1
 Retired 6 (11.54%) 3 (5.77%) 0.93 (0.11–6.23) 1
Treatment expenditure
  < 40,000 Naira (about US $125) 8 (15.38%) 1 (1.92%) 1  
  > 40,000 Naira (about US $125) 21 (40.38%) 14 (26.92%) 5.17 (0.58–252.92) 0.134
 Unable to quantify 7 (13.46%) 1 (1.92%) 1.13 (0.01–100.69) 1
Bed net/door and window screens
 No net use 21 (40.38%) 9 (17.31%) 1  
 Screen on doors and windows 4 (7.69%) 3 (5.77%) 1.72 (0.21–12.67) 0.659
 Bed net use 11 (21.15%) 4 (7.69%) 0.85 (0.16–4.00) 1
  1. Reference category – that with the highest count was chosen as the reference category