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Table 3 Matched analysis of factors associated with lymphedema and hydrocele in study participants tested using sign tests

From: The social, physical and economic impact of lymphedema and hydrocele: a matched cross-sectional study in rural Nigeria

Characteristics Control (N = 52) Cases (N = 52) Number positive differences (%) Number negative differences (%) Proportion of negative differences (Exact binomial CI)
Marital status    0 (0%) 12 (100%) 1 (0.74–1.00)
 Never married 0 (0%) 10 (19.23%)    
 Divorced 0 (0%) 2 (3.85%)    
 Married 52 (100%) 40 (76.92%)    
Occupational level    8 (33.33%) 16 (66.67%) 0.67 (0.45–0.84)
 No work 7 (13.46%) 5 (9.62%)    
 Unskilled 31 (59.61%) 44 (84.61%)    
 Skilled 14 (26.92%) 3 (5.77%)    
Educational level    9 (24.32%) 28 (75.68%) 0.76 (0.59–0.88)
 No formal education 1 (1.92%) 9 (17.31%)    
 Primary education 18 (34.62%) 26 (50%)    
 Secondary education 18 (34.61%) 13 (25%)    
 Tertiary education 13 (25%) 4 (7.69%)    
 Post graduate education 2 (3.84%) 0 (0%)    
Mobility    32 (100.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0–0.11)
 No problem 52 (100%) 20 (38.46%)    
 Mild problem 0 (0%) 13 (25.00%)    
 Moderate problem 0 (0%) 3 (5.77%)    
 Severe problem 0 (0%) 16 (30.77%)    
Self-care    17 (100.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0–0.20)
 No problem 52 (100%) 35 (67%)    
 Difficulty in self-care 0 (0%) 7 (13.46%)    
 Only essential needs are met 0 (0%) 3 (5.77%)    
 Require someone to help for care 0 (0%) 6 (11.54%)    
 Unable to take care of self 0 (0%) 1 (1.92%)    
Usual activity    14 (100.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0–0.23)
 No problem 52 (100%) 38 (73.08%)    
 Usual activity performed with difficulty 0 (0%) 9 (17.31%)    
 Only essential activities performed 0 (0%) 4 (7.69%)    
 No activity at all 0 (0%) 1 (1.92%)    
Pain and discomfort    45 (93.75%) 3 (6.25%) 0.06 (0.01–0.17)
 No pain 40 (76.92%) 1 (1.92%)    
 Mild pain, without self-treatment 9 (17.31%) 20 (38.46%)    
 Mild pain, with self-treatment 1 (1.92%) 7 (13.46%)    
 Compelled to rest due to pain 0 (0%) 24 (46.15%)    
 Consult doctor and total rest 2 (3.85%) 0 (0%)    
Pain frequency    43 (91.49%) 4 (8.51%) 0.085 (0.02–0.2)
 No pain 40 (76.92%) 1 (1.92%)    
 Weekly 2 (3.85%) 14 (26.92%)    
 Monthly 2 (3.85%) 9 (17.31%)    
 Daily 8 (15.38%) 24 (46.15%)    
 Constant 0 (0%) 4 (7.69%)    
Pain severity    48 (100.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0–0.07)
 No pain 40 (76.92%) 1 (1.92%)    
 Mild 9 (17.31%) 3 (5.77%)    
 Medium 1 (1.92%) 18 (34.61%)    
 Severe 2 (3.85%) 30 (57.69%)    
Cognition    6 (100.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0–0.46)
 No problem 52 (100%) 46 (88.46%)    
 Reduced concentration, memory affected 0 (0%) 4 (7.69%)    
 Loss of concentration 0 (0%) 2 (3.85%)    
Anxiety    46 (100.00%) 0 (0.00%) 0 (0–0.08)
 No anxiety 52 (100%) 6 (11.54%)    
 Does not interfere with performance 0 (0%) 9 (17.31%)    
 Leads to low performance and irritating tendency 0 (0%) 22 (42.31%)    
 No performance and total detachment 0 (0%) 13 (25%)    
 Suicidal tendency 0 (0%) 2 (3.85%)    
Sleep problems    28 (87.50%) 4 (12.50%) 0.13 (0.04–0.29)
 No sleep problem 42 (76.92%) 22 (42.31%)    
 Sleep problem rarely 10 (23.08%) 9 (17.31%)    
 Sleep problem occasionally 0 (0%) 8 (15.39%)    
 Sleep problem often 0 (0%) 6 (11.53%)    
 Cannot sleep most nights 0 (0%) 7 (13.46%)    
Social participation    26 (96.30%) 1 (3.70%) 0.04 (0.0009–0.19)
 No problem with social participation 51 (98.08%) 26 (50%)    
 Avoid social activities as far as possible 1 (1.92%) 19 (36.54%)    
 Total avoidance of social activities 0 (0%) 7 (13.46%)    
Work hours    19 (44.19%) 24 (55.81%) 0.56 (0.40–0.71)
 No work 7 (13.46%) 5 (9.62%)    
 Retired 5 (9.62%) 9 (17.31%)    
 Seasonal work 6 (11.54%) 2 (3.85%)    
 1–4 h 1 (1.92%) 11 (21.15%)    
 5–8 h 9 (17.31%) 5 (9.62%)    
  > 8 h 24 (46.15%) 20 (38.46%)    
Treatment expenditure on last hospital visit    33 (97.06%) 1 (2.94%) 0.03 (0.0007–0.15)
  < 40,000 Naira (about US $125) 40 (95.24%) 9 (21.43%)    
  > 40,000 Naira (about US $125) 2 (4.76%) 33 (78.57%)    
Bed net/door and window screens    7 (22.58%) 24 (77.42%) 0.77 (0.59–0.90)
 No net use 18 (34.62%) 30 (57.69%)    
 Screen on doors and windows 2 (3.85%) 7 (13.46%)    
 Bed net use 32 (61.54%) 15 (28.85%)