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Table 7 Amino acid substitutions identified in the HA of H3N2 viruses sequenced during 2009–2017. Amino acid substitutions were identified in comparison to A/Brisbane/10/2007. Bordered amino acids indicate substitutions in receptor binding site. Deleterious mutations were predicted by online server PROVEAN and are indicated in bold. Only one HA sequence was deposited from MENA countries during 2010 hence this year was excluded from mutation and glycosylation analysis

From: Epidemiological and genetic characterization of pH1N1 and H3N2 influenza viruses circulated in MENA region during 2009–2017

Reference strain   AA substitution Antigenic Site 2009 (%) 2011 (%) 2012 (%) 2013 (%) 2014 (%) 2015 (%) 2016 (%) 2017 (%)
Brisbane/2007 HA1 L3I      7 5 85 64 100
  Q33R     9 19 80 93 68 100
S45 N    23 5 69 90 96 83 100
T48I    23 5 54 87.5 91 72 100
D53N C1   9 32 30.7   4 4 20
E50R       10    
Q75H       10    
N81K E2    8     6  
Y94H    9 38   12.5   4  
N121K A1       4 25.5 80
T128A      31 72.5 6 12.7  
R142 G A3   9 2 30 72 10 12.7 30
K    13.5     12.7 10
N144 S A3      5 87 40 60
K        21 30
N145S A3   59 48.5 100 100 100 100 100
L157S B1 4 4   15 17.5 4 6  
F159 Y B1      15 87 62 100
S      15   8  
K160 T B1       83 53 90
N171K        6 19 60
N189K B2 73 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
A198S    77 43 61.5 100 91 83 100
T212A D 63.6 95 100 84 100 91 85 100
V223I    91 46 84 100 100 85 100
N225D       20 89 68 100
R261Q      15    8 20
N278K C2   9   54 97 93 74 100
E280A    4 38     4  
Q311H       7 85 59 60
N312S   82 91 62 69 100 100 91 100
HA2 V347 M    9   23 15    
K    22    40 4   
G484E        2 27.5 50
D487N    59 43 23     
D489N   9 13   15 12 87 64 100
Total number of substitutions/years   5 17 16 19 23 25 28 23