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Table 6 Identification of amino acid substitutions in H3 antigenic sites of H3N2 viruses. Antigenic sites of H3 protein were compared to vaccine strains Brisbane/2007. Here, we are presenting changes in antigenic sites of viruses isolated following any modification in H3N2 vaccine strain (2012, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017). Dash (−) indicates amino acid similar to vaccine sequence while amino acids different than vaccine strain are indicated in italics. Bold amino acids denote amino acid changes found in vaccine strains recommended for subsequent season in comparison to Brisbane/2007. Similarity of antigenic sites between vaccine strain and circulating viruses is shown as percentages in the last column

From: Epidemiological and genetic characterization of pH1N1 and H3N2 influenza viruses circulated in MENA region during 2009–2017

H3 Similarity to vaccine strains (%)
  A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 C1 C2 E1 D  
  121 135 142 144 145 157 158 159 160 189 194 53 278 62 212 215
Brisbane/2007 N T R N N L K F K N L D N E T P A B C E D
2009 K N K A 100 89.5 100 100 97
Perth/2009 N T R K N L N F K K L D N K T S  
2012 K N N S D A P A P 90 100 84 100 88
Victoria/2011 N T R N N L N F K K L D N E A P  
2014 G S L S F Y S 90 89.5 84 100 100
Texas/2012 N T R N N L N F K K L D K E A P  
2015 R G S S Y T 86.3 89.5 100 100 100
Switzerland/2013 N T G N S L N S K K L D K E A P  
2016 N K G R S K F Y N K N 82 89.5 66.6 100 100
Hong Kong/2014 N T R S S L N Y K K P D K E A P  
2017 K K R G S K T L 77 89.5 100 100 100