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Table 2 Quality Appraisal/ Risk of Bias of included studies (Cochrane tool)

From: Impact of physical exercises on immune function, bone mineral density, and quality of life in people living with HIV/AIDS: a systematic review with meta-analysis

  Adequate Sequence generation Allocation concealment Blinding Incomplete outcome data addressed Selective outcome reporting Free of other bias Summary ROBc. Quality*
Judgement Description Judgement Description Judgement Description Judgement Description Judgement Description Judgement Description  
Agin 2001 Yes Quote: “Sequential randomization was generated …” Comment: Probably done Yes Quote: “Group assignment was executed by the principal investigator and concealed until the time of treatment” Comment: Probably done Yes Comment: Outcome measurement not likely to be influenced by lack of blinding Yes Quote: “Adherence to exercise training was 94% for PRE” Comment: Probably done Yes Comment: Study outcome adequately reported. Yes Comment: Probably appears to be free from other sources of bias. Low risk
High Quality
Anandh 2014 Yes Quote: “All 24 subjects after baseline assessment were randomly allotted” Comment: Probably done Yes Quote: “…into two groups by using sealed envelopes.” Comment: Probably done Yes Quote: “…physiotherapist who is blinded to group allotment” Comment: Probably done Yes Quote: “Intention to treat analysis for all outcome measures was carried out” Comment: Probably done Yes Quote: “All three outcome measures were tested at baseline and end of three months of intervention” Comment: Probably done Yes Comment: Probably appears to be free from other sources of bias. Low risk High Quality
Baigis 2002 Yes Quote: “Study identification (ID) numbers were randomized” Comment: Probably done Yes Quote: “…in advance and placed in sequentially numbered opaque envelopes” Comment: Probably done Yes Comment: Outcome measurement not likely to be influenced by lack of blinding Yes Quote: “Intent to treat analysis was used for the physiologic variables” Comment: Missing data imputed using appropriate method Yes Quote: “outcomes between the intervention and the control group were determined at baseline, 8, and 15 weeks”
Comment: Probably done
Yes Comment: Probably appears to be free from other sources of bias. Low risk High Quality
Ezema 2014 Yes Quote: “Eligible participants were randomized…”
Comments: Probably done
No Quote: “using simple random assignment into the exercise group and the control group respectively.” Comment: Probably not done Yes Comment: Outcome measurement not likely to be influenced by lack of blinding Yes Comment: Missing data adequately accounted for. Yes Comment: Study outcome recorded pre and post treatment. Yes Comment: Probably appears to be free from other sources of bias. Low risk High Quality
Gillespie 1997 Yes Quote: “a table of random numbers was used to randomly assign each individual…” Comment: Probably done No Comment: Probably not done Yes Comment: Outcome measurement not likely to be influenced by lack of blinding Yes Comment: Missing data reported appropriately Yes Quote: “… variables in the pretest to posttest changes in quality of life…” Comment: Probably done Yes Comment: Probably appears to be free from other sources of bias. Low risk High Quality
Maduagwu, 2015 Yes Quote: “This random assignment involved the authors…” Comment: Probably done Yes Quote: “…papers were then wrapped, placed and mixed in a basket.”
Comment: probably done.
Yes Comment: Outcome measurement not likely to be influenced by lack of blinding Yes Quote: “22% attrition rate was recorded general,..” Comment: probably done Yes Quote: “… the pre – and post – test values of the variables in the experimental and control groups.” Comment: Probably done Yes Comment: Probably appears to be free from other sources of bias. Low risk High Quality
Maharaj 2011 Yes Quote: “…then randomly assigned by means of a computer…” Comment: Probably done No Comment: Probably not done Yes Quote: “the researchers and assistants blinded to the scores…” Comment: probably done Yes Comment: Missing data imputed. Yes Quote: “questionnaire was completed by both groups on entry and monthly …” Comment: Probably done Yes Comment: Probably appears to be free from other sources of bias. Low risk High Quality
Mkandla 2016 Yes Quote: “Random allocation was applied to both participants and clinics.”
Comment: Probably done.
No Comment: Probably not done Yes Quote: “An assessor-blinded RCT was conducted” Comment: probably done. Yes Quote: “Intention to treat analysis was applied using the last observed value for missing data (60%).”
Comment: Probably done
Yes Quote: “…profile scores at baseline and post-intervention” Comment: Probably done. Yes Comment: Probably appears to be free from other sources of bias. Low risk High Quality
Ogalha 2011 Yes Quote: “70 subjects were randomized”
Comment: Probably done
No Comment: Probably not done Yes Comment: Outcome measurement not likely to be influenced by lack of blinding Yes Comments: No missing Data for the Exercise group Yes Comment: Study outcome adequately reported. Yes Comment: Probably appears to be free from other sources of bias. Low risk
High Quality
Perna 1999 Yes Quote: “… were randomly assigned” Comment: Probably done No Comment: Probably not done Yes Comment: Outcome measurement not likely to be influenced by lack of blinding No Comment: Probably not done Yes Quote: “... as a between- subjects factor and time point (baseline and 3-month)…”
Comments: Probably done.
Yes Comment: Probably appears to be free from other sources of bias. Low risk High Quality
Smith 2001 Yes Quote: “subjects were randomly assigned…”
Comment: Probably done.
No Comment: Probably not done Yes Quote: “…except the principal investigator, were blinded to the subject’s group assignment…”
Comment: Probably done.
No Comment: Probably not done Yes Quote: “…variables were measured at baseline and week 12 in all subjects”
Comment: Probably done
Yes Comment: Probably appears to be free from other sources of bias. Low risk
High Quality
Stringer 1998 Yes Quote: “… by means of a computer- generated randomization.”
Comment: Probably done
No Comment: Probably not done Yes Comment: Outcome measurement not likely to be influenced by lack of blinding Yes Quote: “Patient who dropped out of the study were uniformly distributed among the three groups.” Comment: Probably done Yes Comment: Study outcome adequately reported. Yes Comment: Probably appears to be free from other sources of bias. Low risk
High Quality
Terry 1999 Yes Quote: “Subject were then randomized to participate…”
Comment: Probably done.
No Comment: Probably not done Yes Comment: Outcome measurement not likely to be influenced by lack of blinding Yes Comment: Missing data adequately accounted for. Yes Quote: “Before the program, at 6 weeks and the end of the program blood was collected…”
Comment: Probably done.
Yes Comment: Probably appears to be free from other sources of bias. Low risk
High Quality
Terry 2006 Yes Quote: “Those who met the inclusion criteria were then randomized to participate”
Comment: Probably done.
No Comment: Probably not done Yes Comment: Outcome measurement not likely to be influenced by lack of blinding Yes Quote: “Compliance with the sessions in both groups was 100%”
Comment: Probably done.
Yes Quote: “Before and after the intervention, 12-h fasting venous blood samples were collected”
Comment: Probably done
Yes Comment: Probably appears to be free from other sources of bias. Low risk
High Quality
Yar’zever 2013 Yes Quote: “They were randomly assigned to either…”
Comment: Probably done
No Comment: Probably not done Yes Comment: Outcome measurement not likely to be influenced by lack of blinding Yes Comment: No missing data Yes Quote: “…dependent variables (CD4 count and viral load) were measured before and after cycle exercise programme”
Comment: Probably done.
Yes Comment: Probably appears to be free from other sources of bias. Low risk
High Quality
Zanetti 2016 Yes Quote: “Then, they were randomly allocated”
Comment: Probably done
No Comment: Probably not done Yes Comment: Outcome measurement not likely to be influenced by lack of blinding No Comment: Probably not done Yes Comment: outcome measured pre and post intervention No Comment: Baseline incompatibility. High risk
Low Quality
  1. c Summary for risk of bias (ROB) was assigned using the Cochrane tool for risk of bias
  2. *Studies were subsequently rated low quality trials (having high ROB) or high quality trials (having low to moderate ROB) if there was ≥3 or < 3 identifiable sources of bias respectively (Abaraogu et al. 2017)