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Table 1 Characteristics of Included Studies

From: Impact of physical exercises on immune function, bone mineral density, and quality of life in people living with HIV/AIDS: a systematic review with meta-analysis

Author, Year (Location of study) Characteristics of participants Age(years) Gender Sample size. Retention (attrition) Intervention. No of participants allocated (No that completed) Duration of intervention Control Outcome Measurement tool for outcome Summary of result
Agin, 2001 (U.S.A) 28–66
Women
N = 37
81% (19%)
Progressive Resistance Training
3 sets of 10 exercises
(8–10 repetition / set)
n = 12 (10)
Whey protein (PRO) n = 12 (10)
Combined (PRO-PRE) n = 13 (10)
14 weeks   QoL MOS survey Physical activity score significantly increased for PRE group (p = 0.02): general health perceptions (p = 0.03), vitality (p = 0.007)
Anandh, 2014 (India) 41.71 ± 5.73
N = 24
80% (20%)
Progressive Resistance Training.
(10 RM 3x weekly) n = 12 (9)
12 weeks No exercise
n = 12 (10)
QoL
Immune function
MOS-HIV survey
CD4 count
Effective in increasing CD4 count (E.S = 0.09; p = 0.041) and QoL (p = 0.004)
Baigis, 2002 (USA) NR
N = 123
80.5% (19.5%)
Aerobic exercise
(75–85% MHR)
n = 68 (52)
15 weeks No exercise
n = 55 (47)
Immune status
QoL
CD4 count
MOS-HIV
No significant impact of exercise on CD4 count
Significance on MOS-HIV overall health subscale (p = 0.02)
Ezema, 2014 (Nigeria) 22–63
NR
N = 33
91% (9%)
Aerobic exercise
(60–79% MHR)
n = 17 (15)
8 weeks Conventional therapy
n = 16 (15)
Immune function CD4 count Increase CD4 count in the exercise group compared to control (ES = 0.7)
Farinatti, 2010 (Brazil) 45 ± 2 years
NR
N = 27
87% (13%)
Aerobic training (30 mins. of moderate intensity exercise (cycle ergometer), PWC 150); strengthening exercise-50mins (2 sets of 12 reps of 5 exercises at 60–80% 12 RM); and flexibility exercise- 10 min (2 sets of 30s at max. ROM of 8 exercises). 12 weeks No treatment Immune function CD4 count There was no significant change in the CD4-T cell counts either in the exercise group or the control group
Galantino, 2005 (Rwanda) 20–60 years
N = 51
75% (25]
EX intended to foster strength, endurance, and cardiovascular exertion. (60–70% MHR). 8 weeks Maintain normal activity QoL (MOS-HIV) and Spirituality Well-Being Scale (SWB). Exercise training improved quality of life
Gillespie, 1997 (United State) 27–46
N = 23
78.3% (21.7%)
Aerobic exercise
(60–80% MHR)
n = 11(6)
12 weeks No exercise.
n = 12
QoL MOS-HIV No significant difference between exercise and control groups on MOS-HIV
Maduagwu, 2015 (Nigeria) 39.57 ± 10.13
N = 82
78% (22%)
Moderate intensity aerobic exercise (treadmill)
50–70% HRR
n = 41 (32)
12 weeks Maintain routine daily activities
n = 41 (32)
Immune function CD4 count Significant improvement of CD4 count between pre-test and post-test in the experimental group (ES = 0.8)
Maharaj, 2011
(South Africa)
NR
N = 52
50% (50%)
Aerobic exercise.
(50–70% MHR)
n = 26 (20)
12 weeks SWD (as a placebo)
n = 26 (6)
QoL SF-36 Questionnaire QoL significantly improved for the experimental group compared with the control.
Physical component (ES = 0.3; p < 0.018)
Mental component
(ES = 0.2; p < 0.021)
Mkandla, 2016 (Zimbabwe) 42.2 ± 8.5
N = 160
40% (60%)
Progressive Resistance Exercise intervention
To lower limb
n = 80 (29)
12 weeks Usual advice + normal activities
n = 80 (35)
QoL (EQ-5D)
Euro quality of life-5 dimension
significantly improved (HRQOL) in the intervention when compared to the control group measured using the state of health visual analogue(p = 0.04)
Mutimura, 2008 (Rwanda) 21–50 years
N = 100
97% (3%)
EXC include warmup (15 min) followed by 45–60 min of jogging, running, stair climbing, low-back & abdominal stabilization and strengthening exercises 24 weeks No treatment QoL WHOQOL-BREF Exercise training improved several components of QoL in HAART-treated HIV+ African subjects with body fat distribution
Ogalha, 2011 (Brazil) 43.15 ± 9.45
N = 70
90% (10%)
Aerobic exercise
(75% MHR)
n = 35
24 weeks Counseling
n = 35(28)
QoL
Immune function
SF-36
CD4 count
Higher significance for patient in exercise group concerning general health, vitality and mental health
significant improvement for CD4 (ES = 0.2; p = 0.001)
Perna, 1999 (USA) 36.75 ± 6.27
N = 43
65% (35%)
Aerobic exercise
(70–80 MHR)
n = 24 (18)
12 weeks No exercise
n = 19 (10)
Immune function CD4 count Significant increase with compliant exercises (ES = 0.9 p < 0.02), while significant decrease for non-compliant and control with a decrease of about 10%
Smith 2001 (U.S.A) 36 ± 6.6
N = 60
82% (18%)
Aerobic exercise training
(60–80% MHR)
n = 30 (19)
12 weeks No exercise
n = 30
Immune function CD4 count No significant change in CD4 cell count
Stringer 1998 (U.S.A) 36 ± 9
N = 34
76% (23%)
Aerobic exercise
(Cycle ergometer)
Moderate intensity
(n = 9)
6 weeks Maintain current level of activity
n = 8
Heavy intensity Aerobic exercise
n = 9
Immune function
QoL
CD4 count
A subset of QoL questionnaire validated prior HIV studies
Minimal change among the thee group
Improvement occurred in both exercise training groups relative to control group.
Terry, 2006 (Brazil) 37.5 ± 8.5
N = 42
71% (29%)
Aerobic exercise
(70–85% MHR)
n = 21 (15)
12 weeks Soft stretching and relaxation routine.
n = 21(15)
Immune function CD4 count No significant change after exercise
Terry, 1999
(Brazil)
31 ± 8
N = 31
68% (32%)
Aerobic exercise Moderate intensity
(55–60% MHR)
n = 16 (10)
12 weeks Aerobic exercise
High intensity
(75–85 MHR)
n = 15 (11)
Immune function CD4 count No appreciable changes in the moderate or high intensity exercise group
Yar’zever, 2013 (Nigeria) 39.2 ± 12.75 yrs. N = 40
93% (7%)
Aerobic exercise (cycle ergometer) (50–60 MHR)
n = 20
12 weeks Normal daily activities n = 20 (17) Immune function CD4 count Significant deference in CD4 count between pre and post experimental group (ES = 0.4; p < 0.05) and decrease viral load, while control had a decrease in CD4 count and increase viral load
Zanetti, 2016
(Brazil)
41.1 ± 10.1
N = 30
NR
Resistance exercise 3 sets of 6 exercise (6–12 RM/set) n = 15 12 weeks Maintain daily habit n = 15 Immune function CD4 count Increase in CD4 count from pre- post intervention.
  1. Key: NR = Not recorded; QoL = Quality of life; RM = Repetition maximum; SWD = Short wave diathermy; MOS = Medical outcome study, SF-36 = Short form MOS; MHR = Maximum heart rate; HRR = heart rate reserve; ES = Effect size