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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population

From: Severe infection increases cardiovascular risk among HIV-infected individuals

  No CVD Had CVD All patients crude HR
(N = 3200;16,029.2 PY) (N = 184;554.4PY) (N = 3384; 16,583.7PY) (95% CI)
Median FU in years (IQR) 4.5 (2,7.3) 2 (0.6,4.3) 4.4 (1.9,7.3)  
Sex
 Male 2180 (68.1) 130 (70.7) 2310 (68.3) ref.
 Female 1018 (31.8) 56 (29.9) 1074 (31.7) 0.80 (0.58, 1.10)
Age in years at end of FU
 median (IQR) 40.2 (32.9,48.1) 46.6 (37.8,53.5) 40.5 (33.1,48.4)  
 ≤ 30 (%) 409 (12.8) 16 (8.7) 425 (12.6) ref.
 31–45 (%) 1692 (52.9) 64 (34.8) 1756 (51.9) 0.53 (0.31, 0.89)
 46–59 (%) 958 (29.9) 88 (46.7) 1044 (30.9) 0.97 (0.58, 1.61)
 ≥ 60 (%) 141 (4.4) 18 (9.8) 159 (4.7) 1.34 (0.69, 2.60)
Race/ethnicity
 white (%) 1585 (49.5) 83 (45.1) 1668 (49.3) ref.
 non-white (%) 1615 (50.5) 101 (54.9) 1716 (50.7) 1.56 (1.16, 2.09)
Educational level
 up to 9 years (%) 1518 (47.4) 107 (58.2) 1625 (48) ref.
 more than 9 years (%) 1682 (52.6) 77 (41.8) 1759 (52) 0.67 (0.50, 0.90)
CD4 nadir (cells/mm3)
 median(IQR) 204 (71.8326.2) 140 (53,306) 200 (71,325) 1.03 (0.93, 1.13)
 > 350 (%) 677 (21.2) 33 (17.9) 710 (21)
 201–350 (%) 939 (29.3) 40 (21.7) 979 (28.9)
 51–200 (%) 960 (30) 68 (37) 1028 (30.4)
 ≤ 50 (%) 624 (19.5) 43 (23.4) 667 (19.7)
Last HIV RNAª (copies/mL)
 < 400 (%) 2116 (66.1) 108 (58.7) 2224 (65.7) ref.
 ≥ 400 (%) 746 (23.3) 62 (33.7) 808 (23.9) 2.40 (1.75, 3.31)
 missing (%) 338 (10.6) 14 (7.6) 352 (10.4)
Last CD4ª (cells/mm3)
 median (IQR) 544.5 (341,741.2) 397 (222.5645.5) 537 (330.5739)  
 < 350 (%) 765 (23.9) 80 (43.5) 845 (25) ref.
 350–499 (%) 540 (16.9) 28 (15.2) 568 (16.8) 0.40 (0.26, 0.63)
 ≥ 500 (%) 1663 (52) 71 (38.6) 1734 (51.2) 0.27 (0.19, 0.37)
 missing (%) 232 (7.2) 5 (2.7) 237 (7)
Last CD4:CD8 ratioª
 < 0.40 (%) 865 (27) 79 (42.9) 944 (27.9) ref.
 0.40–0.69 (%) 894 (27.9) 46 (25) 940 (27.8) 0.49 (0.34, 0.69)
 ≥ 0.70 (%) 1157 (36.2) 44 (23.9) 1201 (35.5) 0.33 (0.23, 0.47)
 missing (%) 708 (22.1) 21 (11.4) 729 (21.5)
ART useb 2781 (86.9) 144 (78.3) 2925 (86.4) 0.26 (0.18, 0.38)
Hypertension 626 (19.6) 82 (44.6) 708 (20.9) 2.10 (1.56, 2.84)
Diabetes 311 (9.7) 28 (15.2) 339 (10) 1.23 (0.81, 1.86)
Dyslipidemia 1466 (45.8) 101 (54.9) 1567 (46.3) 0.93 (0.69, 1.26)
Tobaccoc 1802 (56.3) 117 (63.6) 1919 (56.7) 1.20 (0.88, 1.63)
Cocainec 255 (8) 13 (7.1) 268 (7.9) 0.69 (0.40, 1.23)
Severe infections
 no severe infections 2490 (77.8) 138 (75) 2628 (77.7) ref.
 < 3 months post severe infections 45 (1.4) 10 (5.4) 55 (1.6) 5.02 (2.64, 9.56)
 3–12 months post severe infections 80 (2.5) 12 (6.5) 92 (2.7) 2.32 (1.28, 4.18)
 12 + months post severe infections 585 (18.3) 24 (13) 609 (18) 0.99 (0.59, 1.59)
  1. CVD: cardiovascular disease; PY: persons-year; IQR: interquartile range; FU: follow-up; ART: antiretroviral therapy
  2. ªWithin the last year of follow-up
  3. bDefined as those who had 60 days or more of exposure to at least three antiretroviral drugs
  4. cEver use