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Table 4 Comparison of serum cytokines levels of healthy control, severe CV-A16 HFMD before and after treated with IVIG + RBV, and severe CV-A16 HFMD before and after treated with RBV only

From: Clinical characteristics and managements of severe hand, foot and mouth disease caused by enterovirus A71 and coxsackievirus A16 in Shanghai, China

Cytokine
(pg/mL)
Control (100)
M (IQR)
IVIG+RBV (19)
M (IQR)
(Before treatment)
IVIG+RBV (19)
M (IQR)
(After treatment)
RBV (125)
M (IQR)
(Before treatment)
RBV (125)
M (IQR)
(After treatment)
χ2 P
IL-1β 3.00(2.95,3.53)a 12.20(7.9199.68)b 3.15(3.00,3.55)c,a 16.80(8.79,71.00)b 3.30(3.00,3.60)c,a 126.232 < 0.001
IL-2 441.00(350.25,543.25)a 1372.50(924.50,1987.25)b 412.00(345.00,500.50)c,a 1085.50(837.50,1472.00)b 427.00(345.00,527.00)c,a 183.044 < 0.001
IL-6 4.05(3.20,4.70)a 18.20(7.44,33.30)b 4.40(3.60,4.95)c,a 11.50(5.06,90.20)b 4.20(2.78,5.30)c,a 86.937 < 0.001
IL-8 46.00(36.75,52.75) 158.00(11.80,216.00) 47.00(38.00,52.00) 63.10(21.60,571.00) 49.00(38.5,52.00) 5.638 0.228
IL-10 5.10(3.68,6.25)a 9.79(6.57,18.10)b 4.50(3.20,6.10)c,a 7.35(5.70,14.70)b 4.35(3.00,6.15)c,a 77.263 < 0.001
IFN-γ 7.00(1.60,11.00)a 47.00(38.00,51.50)b 7.50(5.00,11.50)c,a 60.20(41.00,75.40)b 8.00(5.30,12.00)c,a 15.329 0.004
TNF-α 4.65(3.75,5.40)a 25.80(16.40,41.40)b 4.20(3.70,5.20)c,a 19.05(13.90,52.18)b 4.70(3.80,5.50)c,a 192.151 < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: IVIG intravenous gamma globulin intervention, RBV ribavirin, M median, IQR interquartile range, IL interleukin, IFN interferon, TNF tumor necrosis factor
  2. a vs b, b vs c statistical significance
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